The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf File

Posted onby
  1. The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf Files
  2. The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf File Size
  3. The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf Files
  4. The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf File
Sicilian Defence, Najdorf Variation The Najdorf Variation[1] (/ˈnaɪdɔːrf/) of the Sicilian Defence is one of the most respected and deeply studied of all chess openings. Modern Chess Openings calls it the 'Cadillac' or 'Rolls Royce' of chess openings. The opening is named after the Polish-Argentine grandmaster Miguel Najdorf. Many players have lived by the Najdorf (notably Bobby Fischer and Garry Kasparov, although Kasparov would often transpose into a Scheveningen).
with 10. g4 or 10. Bd3. After each of these moves there is a huge body of opening theory. • 8... h6 9. Bh4 g5. This is known as the Argentine/Goteborg Variation. It was first played in round 14 of 1955 Goteborg Interzonal simultaneously by Argentine players Panno, Pilnik and Najdorf who were facing the Soviet Grandmasters Geller, Spassky and Keres. The games in question proceeded as follows: 10. fxg5 Nfd7 Black aims to route a knight to e5, and then back it up by a knight at d7 or c6. 11. Nxe6!? (Efim Geller's discovery). 11... fxe6 12. Qh5+ Kf8 13. Bb5 here Panno played 13...Ne5, while Pilnik and Najdorf chose 13...Kg7. However, all three Argentine players lost in very short order and the line was, for a while, considered refuted. It was only in 1958 that Bobby Fischer introduced the defensive resource 13... Rh7!, versus Svetozar Gligorić at the Portorož Interzonal, in a critical last-round game. According to modern opening theory this position is a draw at best for White.
The Najdorf begins: 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 Nf6 5. Nc3 a6 Black’s 5...a6 aims to deny the b5-square to White’s knights and light-square bishop while maintaining flexible development. If Black plays 5...e5?! immediately, then after 6.Bb5+! Bd7 (or 6...Nbd7 7.Nf5) 7.Bxd7+ Nbxd7 8.Nf5 and the knight on f5 is difficult to dislodge without concessions.
• 7... Qb6 one of the most popular choices at master level.
Black’s plan is usually to start a minority attack on the queenside and exert pressure on White’s e4-pawn. This is often carried out by means of ...b5, ...Bb7, and placing a knight on c5, or c4 via b6.
1
• 8. Qd2 the extremely complicated Poisoned Pawn Variation: 8... Qxb2 9. Rb1 (9.Nb3 is the other less common option) 9... Qa3 and here White has played both 10. f5 and 10. e5. Both lead to extremely sharp play where slightest inaccuracy is fatal for either side. Since 2006, when it was played in several high level games, 10. e5 has become very popular. From the standpoint of the theory it is regarded as White’s only attempt to play for a win against the poisoned pawn variation since all other variations (and that includes the other pawn move: 10. f5) have been analysed to a draw with best play. An example is the game Vallejo Pons–Kasparov, Moscow 2004,[2] which was called “a model modern grandmaster draw!' by Kasparov himself in Revolution in the 70s (page 164).
Variations
1.1 1.1.1
Main line: 6. Bg5 Classical Main line: 6...e6
Position after 6.Bg5 e6 7.f4 The main move. In the early days of the Najdorf 7.Qf3 was popular, but the reply 7...h6 did not allow White to obtain any real advantage. Nowadays, White players almost universally respond with the move: 7. f4. White threatens 8. e5 winning a piece, but Black has several options:
• 8. Nb3 White opts for a quiet game, but Black has nothing to worry about: 8... Be7 9. Qf3 Nbd7 10. 0-0-0 Qc7 where we have reached a set up very similar to that of the old main line mentioned above. However, without the d4-
• 7... Be7 8. Qf3 and now: • 8... Qc7 9. 0-0-0 Nbd7, this is called the old main line. At this point White usually responds 1
2
1 VARIATIONS knight White will find it very hard to organise an attack.
• 7. f4/Qe2 g6: Grischuk’s Verbeterde List. Another modern way to meet both 7.f4 and 7.Qe2. The idea is to castle kingside rapidly and then start to attack with b5–b4, while wasting no time with the e-pawn.
• 7... b5 the ultra-sharp Polugaevsky Variation.[3] Black ignores White’s threat and expands in Queenside. 8. e5 dxe5 9. fxe5 Qc7 here White either plays 10. exf6 Qe5+ 11. Be2 Qxg5 or 10. Qe2 1.2 Nfd7 11. 0-0-0 Bb7.
English Attack: 6.Be3
• 7... Qc7 championed by Garry Kasparov before he Position after 6.Be3 switched to playing 7...Qb6 exclusively. This has become the modern main line. Since the early 1990s, the English Attack, 6. Be3 followed by f3, g4, Qd2 and 0-0-0 in some order, has become extremely pop• 7... Nc6?! is risky and of a dubious theoretical repular and has been intensively analysed. Black has three utation due to the response: 8. e5! main options: • 7... Nbd7 popularised by Boris Gelfand.
• 7... h6!? the Poisoned Pawn Deferred. This variation is very popular at the moment. 1.1.2
Verbeterde List: 6...Nbd7
Position after 6.Bg5 Nbd7 7.Bc4 Historically speaking, this was the usual reply until the mid-1960s, when the rejoinder 7.Bc4 put the move “out of business”. Recently however, ideas have been found by some Dutch players who call this variation De Verbeterde List (“The Improved Strategem”). The idea for Black is to postpone ...e6 in order to retain more dynamic options (for example, to play e7–e5 in one move). The idea was tested by Petrosian, Belov, and others, but received popular attention and developed rapidly after use by Dutch player Lody Kuling in 2007. The most important developments include: • 7. f4 Qc7 8. Qf3: • 8... h6 9. Bh4 e5. A setup discovered by Lody Kuling.(This variation is covered by Ufuk Tuncer and Twan Burg in New In Chess, Yearbook 102.) The idea is to gain time over ...e6 by playing e7–e5 in one move. Later on it turned out that 9...g5! is even better.
• The classical 6... e5. After 7. Nb3, Black usually continues 7... Be6, trying to control the d5-square. The most common move is then 8. f3, allowing White to play Qd2 next move. If White had tried to play 8. Qd2, then Black could respond with 8... Ng4. Instead White can play 7.Nf3, in which case Black’s main choices are 7...Be7 and 7...Qc7. • Trying to transpose to the Scheveningen by playing 6... e6. White can either opt for the standard English attack by playing 7. f3 or try the even sharper Hungarian attack (also known as Perenyi attack) by playing 7. g4. • The knight move: 6... Ng4. White continues with: 7. Bg5 h6 8. Bh4 g5 9. Bg3 Bg7 but the nature of this position is quite different from the ones arising after 6... e6 and 6... e5 so sometimes White tries to avoid the knight jump by playing 6. f3 instead of 6. Be3. However, aside from eliminating the option to play the Hungarian attack mentioned above, it gives Black other possibilities such as 6... Qb6 and 6... b5 instead. • The Verbeterde List approach: 6... Nbd7. The idea of this move is to get into the English attack while avoiding the Perenyi attack. 7. g4 is less dangerous now because with 6... Nbd7 black is more flexible as the bishop on c8 can attack g4 now and the knight on d7 can jump to interesting squares.
• 8... b5 is the Neo Verbeterde List. This is a new way to play the Verbeterde List. It includes fianchetting the bishop to b7. (The vari- 1.3 Fischer–Sozin Attack: 6.Bc4 ation is covered by Ufuk Tuncer in New In Introduced by Veniamin Sozin in the 1930s, this received Chess, Yearbook 101.) little attention until Fischer regularly adopted it, and it • 7. Bc4 Qb6 This is a move introduced by Lenier was a frequent guest at the top level through the 1970s. Dominguez. The idea is to win a tempo by attack- White plays 6. Bc4 with the idea of playing against f7, ing b2, after which Black can finish his development so Black counters with 6... e6 7. Bb3 b5. The Sozin beginning 8...e6. The last word on the line has not has become less popular because of 6... e6 7. Bb3 Nbd7 yet been given. The whole variation with 6... Nbd7 where Black intends to follow up with ...Nc5 later. It is is covered in the book by Ľubomír Ftáčnik in the possible to avoid the Nbd7 option with 7. 0-0, but this chapter “Blood Diamond”. cuts the aggressive possibility to castle long.
3
1.4
Classical/Opocensky Variation: 6.Be2
Because of the success of various players with these variations, White often plays 6. Be2 and goes for a quieter, more positional game, whereupon Black has the option of transposing into a Scheveningen Variation by playing 6... e6 or keeping the game in Najdorf lines by playing 6... e5. Another option is to play 6... Nbd7, in the spirit of The Verbeterde List. It is for this reason that this variation is called The Verbeterde List Unlimited.
1.5
Amsterdam Variation: 6.f4
Qf3, and 6. Qe2 are rarely played, but are not so bad and may be used for surprise value.
2 See also • List of chess openings • List of chess openings named after people
3 References
6. f4
[1] “Sicilian, Najdorf (B90)'. Chess openings. games.com. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
Some lines include:
[2] “Francisco Vallejo-Pons vs Garry Kasparov (2004)'. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
6...e5 7.Nf3 Nbd7 8.a4 Be7 9.Bd3 0-0 6...Qc7 7.Bd3 6...e6 7.Be2 GM Daniel King recommends 6...g6 against the Amsterdam Variation, leading to a more defensive kingside pawn structure. The idea is to eventually counterattack on the g1-a7 diagonal with a move like Qb6, preventing white from castling.[4] An example line would be 6...g6 7.Nf3 Bg7 8.a4 Nc6 (note 8...Nc6 as opposed to the usual Najdorf Nbd7, as c6 is a more flexible square for the knight with a queen on b6) 9.Bd3 Qb6.
1.6
The Adams Attack: 6.h3
Introduced by Weaver Adams during the middle of the twentieth century, this odd looking pawn move has mostly been used as a surprise weapon to combat the Najdorf. Should Black continue with 6...e5 anyway, White can respond with 7.Nde2 following up with g4 and Ng3, fighting for the weak light squares by playing g5. It is thus recommended that Black prevents g4 altogether with 7...h5. Black can also employ a Scheveningen setup with 6...e6 followed by 7.g4 b5 8.Bg2 Bb7, forcing White to lose more time by defending the e4 pawn, since b4 is a threat. It was not until the early 2008 when an answer to Black was finally found. After 9.0-0 b4, White has the positional sacrifice 10.Nd5!, which gives Black long term weaknesses and an open e-file for White to play on. Since then, it has been popular on all levels of chess.
1.7
Other sixth moves for White
Beside the main lines mentioned above White has other options: 6. f3 and 6. g3 are less common, but are also respected responses to the Najdorf. Moves such as 6. a4, 6. Bd3, 6. a3, 6. Nb3, 6. Rg1 (the Petronic Attack), 6.
Chess-
[3] “Sicilian, Najdorf (B96)'. Chess openings. Chessgames.com. Retrieved 2008-01-19. (also known as Najdorf, Polugayevsky Variation) [4] King, Daniel. Power Play 18: The Sicilian Najdorf.
4 Further reading • O'Kelly de Galway, Albéric (1969). The Sicilian Flank Game (Najdorf Variation). Batsford. ISBN 9780713403510. • Geller, Efim; Gligoric, Svetozar; Kavalek, Lubomir; Spassky, Boris (1976). The Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian Defense. RHM Press. ISBN 0890580251. Cite uses deprecated parameter coauthors= (help) • Stean, Michael (1976). Sicilian, Najdorf. Batsford. ISBN 0713400986. • Adams, Jimmy (1977). Main Line Najdorf. The Chess Player. ISBN 0900928905. • Adams, Jimmy (1977). Najdorf Poisoned Pawn. The Chess Player. ISBN 0906042070. • Adams, Jimmy (1978). Sicilian Najdorf Polugaevsky Variation. The Chess Player. ISBN 0906042097. • Nunn, John (1999). Complete Najdorf: Modern Lines. Sterling Pub Co Inc. ISBN 0713482184. • Kosten, Tony; Gormally, Danny (1999). Easy Guide to the Najdorf. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1857445295. • King, Daniel (2002). Winning With the Najdorf. Sterling Pub Co Inc. ISBN 0713470372. • Emms, John (2003). Play the Najdorf: Scheveningen Style. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-323-3.
4
5 • de Firmian, Nick; Fedorowicz, John (2004). The English Attack. Sterling. ISBN 978-0945806141. • Sammalvuo, Tapani (2004). The English Attack. Gambit Publications. ISBN 1-901983-57-9. • Gallagher, Joe (2006). Starting Out: Sicilian Najdorf. Everyman Chess. ISBN 978-1857443929. • Palliser, Richard (2007). Starting Out: Sicilian Najdorf. Everyman Chess. ISBN 978-1-85744-601-2. • Rizzitano, James (2010). Play the Najdorf Sicilian. Gambit Publications. ISBN 978-1-906454-16-6. • Ftacnik, Lubomir (2010). The Sicilian Defence. Quality Chess. ISBN 978-1-906552-08-4.
5
• Yearbook 101. 9056913611.
New In Chess.
2011.
ISBN
• Yearbook 102. 9056913638.
New In Chess.
2012.
ISBN
External links • Najdorf Variation video and analysis • Najdorf Variation at ChessGames.com • Sicilian Defense Najdorf Variation, English Attack (B90) – Openings – Chess.com
EXTERNAL LINKS
5
6
Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses
6.1
Text
• Sicilian Defence, Najdorf Variation Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_Defence%2C_Najdorf_Variation?oldid= 748361452 Contributors: William Avery, Robbot, Webhat, Asparagus, Bfinn, Explendido Rocha, Neilc, Modargo, Bender235, ZeroOne, Goatbear, Edoderoo, CygnusPius, Jacobolus, Jeff3000, Tabletop, AllanBz, Sjakkalle, Quale, Bubba73, WTHarvey, WarmasterKron, Nylex, Bgwhite, Billbrock, Krakatoa, Cobblet, FrozenPurpleCube, SmackBot, Whispering, Colonies Chris, Shalom Yechiel, OneEuropeanHeart, KNM, Safalra, Storeye, Thijs!bot, Zickzack, Escarbot, Raghunc, JAnDbot, Michig, Nmcmurdo, Talaris, SyG, Anonywiki, Furorimpius, Trimagna, MaxBrowne, Rodrigo170988, M4gnum0n, Sun Creator, SilvonenBot, Mm40, Addbot, SpellingBot, Johannesbjarki, LaaknorBot, Lightbot, Kiril Simeonovski, Conroy23, Rojypala, Whiteknight, Ben Ben, Gebminds, AnomieBOT, MrsHudson, Latest Incarnation, Adrignola, BukMer, Hushpuckena, Apdency, Johnnyc24, A2soup, Thomasdav, H3llBot, Savedra, Ihardlythinkso, ClueBot NG, Frietjes, Jogmiers, Green Rain, Twaburov~enwiki, BG19bot, Compfreak7, Toccata quarta, Hasire, DoctorKubla, I am One of Many, RynMasters, Monkbot, Jamalmunshi, Aussie589, Tsubakura, Debanjan Bhowmik and Anonymous: 62
6.2
Images
• File:Chess_bdt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Chess_bdt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_blt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b1/Chess_blt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_kdt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Chess_kdt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_klt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Chess_klt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_ndt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Chess_ndt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_nlt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/70/Chess_nlt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_pdt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/Chess_pdt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_plt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Chess_plt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_qdt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Chess_qdt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_qlt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Chess_qlt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_rdt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Chess_rdt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chess_rlt45.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Chess_rlt45.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: en:User:Cburnett • File:Chessboard480.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Chessboard480.svg License: CC0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: ‫החבלן‬ • File:Text_document_with_red_question_mark.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Text_document_ with_red_question_mark.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Created by bdesham with Inkscape; based upon Text-x-generic.svg from the Tango project. Original artist: Benjamin D. Esham (bdesham) • File:Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan. svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Bastique, User:Ramac et al.
6.3
Content license
• Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
French Defence
abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
Moves1.e4 e6
ECOC00–C19
Named afterLondon vs. Paris correspondence match (1834–1836)[1]
ParentKing's Pawn Game

The French: Tarrasch Variation. The Tarrasch Formula. Modern French Philosophy. Modern French Grammar. Modern French Grammar Workbook (Modern Grammar Workbooks) Read more. From Latin to Modern French. Encyclopedia of Modern French Thought. Stars in Modern French Film. Download the french tarrasch variation files found Uploaded on TraDownload and all major free file sharing websites like 4shared.com, uploaded.to, mediafire.com and many others. After clicking desired file title click download now button or copy download link to browser and wait certain amount of time (usually up to 30 seconds) for download to begin.

The French Defence is a chessopening characterised by the moves:

The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf File
1. e4e6

This is most commonly followed by 2.d4 d5, with Black intending ...c5 at a later stage, attacking White's centre and gaining space on the queenside. White has extra space in the centre and on the kingside and often plays for a breakthrough with f4–f5. The French has a reputation for solidity and resilience, although some lines such as the Winawer Variation can lead to sharp complications. Black's position is often somewhat cramped in the early game; in particular, the pawn on e6 can impede the development of the bishop on c8.

  • 3Main line: 2.d4 d5
    • 3.13.Nc3
      • 3.1.1Winawer Variation: 3...Bb4
      • 3.1.2Classical Variation: 3...Nf6


Basics[edit]

abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh

Following the opening moves 1.e4 e6, the game usually continues 2.d4 d5 (see below for alternatives). White makes a claim to the centre, while Black immediately challenges the pawn on e4.

White's options include defending the e4-pawn with 3.Nc3 or 3.Nd2, exchanging it with 3.exd5, or advancing the pawn with 3.e5, each of which lead to different types of positions. Note that 3.Bd3 allows 3...dxe4 4.Bxe4 Nf6, after which White must concede to Black either a tempo or the advantage of the two bishops.

General themes[edit]

abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh

The diagram shows for the pawn structure most typical of the French. Black has more space on the queenside, so tends to focus on that side of the board, almost always playing ...c7–c5 at some point to attack White's pawn chain at its base, and may follow up by advancing his a- and b-pawns.

Alternatively or simultaneously, Black will play against White's centre, which is cramping his position. The flank attack ...c7–c5 is usually insufficient to achieve this, so Black will often play ...f7–f6. If White supports the pawn on e5 by playing f2–f4, then Black has two common ideas. Black may strike directly at the f-pawn by playing ...g7–g5. The pawn on g5 may also threaten to advance to g4 to drive away a white knight on f3, augmenting Black's play against the white centre. Another idea is to play ...fxe5, and if White recaptures with fxe5, then Black gains an open f-file for his rook. Then, as White usually has a knight on f3 guarding his pawns on d4 and e5, Black may sacrifice the exchange with ...Rxf3 to destroy the white centre and attack the king. On the other hand, if White plays dxe5, then the a7–g1 diagonal is opened, making it less desirable for White to castle kingside.

abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
Position after 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 Be7 5.e5 Nfd7 6.Bxe7 Qxe7 7.f4 0-0 8.Nf3 c5 9.Bd3

White usually tries to exploit his extra space on the kingside, where he will often play for a mating attack. White tries to do this in the Alekhine–Chatard Attack, for example. Another example is the following line of the Classical French: 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 Be7 5.e5 Nfd7 6.Bxe7 Qxe7 7.f4 0-0 8.Nf3 c5 9.Bd3 (see diagram). White's light-square bishop eyes the weak h7-pawn, which is usually defended by a knight on f6 but here it has been pushed away by e5. If 9...cxd4 (Black does better with 9...f5 or 9...f6), White can play the Greek gift sacrifice 10.Bxh7+ Kxh7 11.Ng5+ Qxg5! 12.fxg5 dxc3 13.Qh5+! where Black has three minor pieces for the queen, which gives him a slight material superiority, but his king is vulnerable and White has good attacking chances.

Apart from a piece attack, White may play for the advance of his kingside pawns (an especially common idea in the endgame), which usually involves f2–f4, g2–g4 and then f4–f5 to use his natural spatial advantage on that side of the board. A white pawn on f5 can be very strong as it may threaten to capture on e6 or advance to f6. Sometimes pushing the h-pawn to h5 or h6 may also be effective. A modern idea is for White to gain space on the queenside by playing a2–a3 and b2–b4. If implemented successfully, this will further restrict Black's pieces.

abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh

One of the drawbacks of the French Defence for Black is his queen's bishop, which is blocked in by his pawn on e6 and can remain passive throughout the game. An often-cited example of the potential weakness of this bishop is S. Tarrasch–R. Teichmann, San Sebastián 1912, in which the diagrammed position was reached after fifteen moves of a Classical French.

Black's position is passive because his light-square bishop is hemmed in by pawns on a6, b5, d5, e6 and f7. White will probably try to exchange Black's knight, which is the only one of his pieces that has any scope. Although it might be possible for Black to hold on for a draw, it is not easy and, barring any mistakes by White, Black will have few chances to create counterplay; which is why, for many years, the classical lines fell out of favour, and 3...Bb4 began to be seen more frequently after World War I, due to the efforts of Nimzowitsch and Botvinnik. In Tarrasch–Teichmann, White won after 41 moves. In order to avoid this fate, Black usually makes it a priority early in the game to find a useful post for the bishop. Black can play ...Bd7–a4 to attack a pawn on c2, which occurs in many lines of the Winawer Variation. If Black's f-pawn has moved to f6, then Black may also consider bringing the bishop to g6 or h5 via d7 and e8. If White's light-square bishop is on the f1–a6 diagonal, Black can try to exchange it by playing ...b6 and ...Ba6, or ...Qb6 followed by ...Bd7–b5.

Main line: 2.d4 d5 [edit]

3.Nc3[edit]

Played in over 40% of all games after 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5, 3. Nc3 is the most commonly seen line against the French. Black has three main options, 3...Bb4 (the Winawer Variation), 3...Nf6 (the Classical Variation), and 3...dxe4 (the Rubinstein Variation). An eccentric idea is 3...Nc6!? 4.Nf3 Nf6 with the idea of 5.e5 Ne4; German IM Helmut Reefschlaeger has been fond of this move.

Winawer Variation: 3...Bb4 [edit]

This variation, named after Szymon Winawer and pioneered by Nimzowitsch and Botvinnik, is one of the main systems in the French, due chiefly to the latter's efforts in the 1940s, becoming the most often seen rejoinder to 3.Nc3, though in the 1980s, the Classical Variation with 3...Nf6 began a revival, and has since become more popular.

abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
Winawer Variation after 3...Bb4 4.e5 c5 5.a3 Bxc3+ 6.bxc3

3... Bb4pins the knight on c3, forcing White to resolve the central tension. White normally clarifies the central situation for the moment with 4. e5, gaining space and hoping to show that Black's b4-bishop is misplaced. The main line then is: 4... c5 5. a3 Bxc3+ 6. bxc3, resulting in the diagrammed position.

While White has doubled pawns on the queenside, which form the basis for Black's counterplay, they can also help White since they strengthen his centre and give him a semi-open b-file. White has a spatial advantage on the kingside, where Black is even weaker than usual because he has traded off his dark-square bishop. Combined with the bishop pair, this gives White attacking chances, which he must attempt to use as the long-term features of this pawn structure favour Black.

In the diagrammed position, Black most frequently plays 6... Ne7 (The main alternative is 6...Qc7, which can simply transpose to main lines after 7.Qg4 Ne7, but Black also has the option of 7.Qg4 f5 or ...f6. 6...Qa5 has recently become a popular alternative). Now White can exploit the absence of Black's dark-square bishop by playing 7. Qg4, giving Black two choices: he may sacrifice his kingside pawns with 7...Qc7 8.Qxg7 Rg8 9.Qxh7 cxd4 but destroy White's centre in return, the so-called 'Poisoned Pawn Variation'; or he can play 7...0-0 8.Bd3 Nbc6, which avoids giving up material, but leaves the king on the flank where White is trying to attack. Experts on the 7.Qg4 line include Judit Polgár.

If the tactical complications of 7.Qg4 are not to White's taste, 7.Nf3 and 7.a4 are good positional alternatives, and 7.h4 is a more aggressive attempt:

7. Nf3 is a natural developing move, and White usually follows it up by developing the king's bishop to d3 or e2 (occasionally to b5) and castling kingside. This is called the Winawer Advance Variation. This line often continues 7... Bd7 8. Bd3 c4 9. Be2 Ba4 10. 0-0 Qa5 11. Bd2 Nbc6 12. Ng5 h6 13. Nh3 0-0-0. Its assessment is unclear, but most likely Black would be considered 'comfortable' here.

The purpose behind 7. a4 is threefold: it prepares Bc1–a3, taking advantage of the absence of Black's dark-square bishop. It also prevents Black from playing ...Qa5–a4 or ...Bd7–a4 attacking c2, and if Black plays ...b6 (followed by ...Ba6 to trade off the bad bishop), White may play a5 to attack the b6-pawn.

White also has 7. h4, which has the ideas of either pushing this pawn to h6 to cause more dark-square weaknesses in the Black kingside (if Black meets h5 with ...h6, White can play g4-g5), or getting the rook into the game via Rh3–g3.

Black can also gain attacking chances in most lines: against 7.Qg4, Black will attack White's king in the center; whereas against the other lines, Black can often gain an attack with ...0-0-0, normally combined with ...c4 to close the queenside, and then ...f6 to open up the kingside, where White's king often resides. If Black can accomplish this, White is often left without meaningful play, although ...c4 does permit White a4 followed by Ba3 if Black has not stopped this by placing a piece on a4 (for example, by Bd7–a4).

The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf Files

Sidelines[edit]

5th move deviations for White include:

  • 5.Qg4
  • 5.dxc5
  • 5.Nf3
  • 5.Bd2

4th move deviations for White include:

  • 4.exd5 exd5, transposing to a line of the Exchange Variation, where White may aim to prove that Black's bishop on b4 is misplaced.
  • 4.Ne2 (the Alekhine Gambit) 4...dxe4 5.a3 Be7 (5...Bxc3+ is necessary if Black wants to try to hold the pawn) 6.Nxe4 to prevent Black from doubling his pawns.
  • 4.Bd3 defending e4.
  • 4.a3 Bxc3+ 5.bxc3 dxe4 6.Qg4, another attempt to exploit Black's weakness on g7.
  • 4.e5 c5 5.Bd2, again preventing the doubled pawns and making possible 6.Nb5, where the knight may hop into d6 or simply defend d4.
  • 4.Bd2 (an old move sometimes played by Rashid Nezhmetdinov, notably against Mikhail Tal)

Deviations for Black include:

  • 4...Ne7 although this move usually transposes to the main line.
  • 4...b6 followed by ...Ba6, or 4...Qd7 with the idea of meeting 5.Qg4 with 5...f5. However, theory currently prefers White's chances in both lines.
  • Another popular way for Black to deviate is 4.e5 c5 5.a3 Ba5, the Armenian Variation, as its theory and practice have been much enriched by players from that country, the most notable of whom is Rafael Vaganian. Black maintains the pin on the knight, which White usually tries to break by playing 6.b4 cxb4 7.Qg4 or 7.Nb5 (usually 7.Nb5 bxa3+ 8.c3 Bc7 9.Bxa3 and White has the upper hand).

Classical Variation: 3...Nf6 [edit]

This is another major system in the French. White can continue with the following options:

4.Bg5[edit]
abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh

White threatens 5.e5, attacking the pinned knight. Black has a number of ways to meet this threat:

  • Burn Variation, named after Amos Burn is the most common reply at the top level: 4... dxe4 5. Nxe4 and usually there now follows: 5... Be7 6. Bxf6 Bxf6 7. Nf3 Nd7 or 7... 0-0, resulting in a position resembling those arising from the Rubinstein Variation. However, here Black has the bishop pair, with greater dynamic chances (although White's knight is well placed on e4), so this line is more popular than the Rubinstein and has long been a favourite of Evgeny Bareev. Black can also try 5...Be7 6.Bxf6 gxf6, as played by Alexander Morozevich and Gregory Kaidanov; by following up with ...f5 and ...Bf6, Black obtains active piece play in return for his shattered pawn structure. Another line that resembles the Rubinstein is 5...Nbd7 6.Nf3 Be7 (6...h6 is also tried) 7.Nxf6+ Bxf6.
  • 4... Be7 5. e5 Nfd7 used to be the main line and remains important, even though the Burn Variation has overtaken it in popularity. The usual continuation is 6. Bxe7 Qxe7 7. f4 0-0 8. Nf3 c5, when White has a number of options, including 9.Bd3, 9.Qd2 and 9.dxc5. An alternative for White is the gambit6. h4, which was devised by Adolf Albin and played by Chatard, but not taken seriously until the game Alekhine–Fahrni, Mannheim 1914. It is known today as the Albin–Chatard Attack or the Alekhine–Chatard Attack. After 6... Bxg5 7. hxg5 Qxg5 8. Nh3 Qe7 9. Nf4 Nc6 10. Qg4 (the reason for 8.Nh3 rather than 8.Nf3), White has sacrificed a pawn to open the h-file, thereby increasing his attacking chances on the kingside. Black may also decline the gambit in several ways such 6...a6 and 6...f6, but most strong players prefer 6...c5.
  • A third choice for Black is to counterattack with the McCutcheon Variation. In this variation, the second player ignores White's threat of e4–e5 and instead plays 4... Bb4. The main line continues: 5. e5 h6 6. Bd2 Bxc3 7. bxc3 Ne4 8. Qg4. At this point Black may play 8...g6, which weakens the kingside dark squares but keeps the option of castling queenside, or 8...Kf8. The McCutcheon Variation is named for John Lindsay McCutcheon of Philadelphia (1857–1905), who brought the variation to public attention when he used it to defeat World Champion Steinitz in a simultaneous exhibition in Manhattan in 1885.[2][3][4]
4.e5[edit]
abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh

The Steinitz Variation, named after Wilhelm Steinitz, continues with 4. e5 Nfd7. Here 5.Nce2, the Shirov–Anand Variation, prepares to bolster the white pawn centre with c2–c3 and f2–f4; while 5.Nf3 transposes to a position also reached via the Two Knights Variation (2.Nf3 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.e5 Nfd7 5.d4). The main line of the Steinitz is 5. f4 c5 6. Nf3 Nc6 7. Be3. (Instead 7.Nce2 transposes to the Shirov–Anand Variation, while 7.Be2? cxd4 8.Nxd4 Ndxe5! 9.fxe5 Qh4+ wins a pawn for Black.) Here Black may step up the pressure on d4 by playing 7...Qb6 or 7...cxd4 8.Nxd4 Qb6, begin queenside play with 7...a6 8.Qd2 b5, or continue kingside development by playing 7...Be7 or 7...cxd4 8.Nxd4 Bc5. In these lines, White has the option of playing either Qd2 and 0-0-0, or Be2 and 0-0, with the former typically leading to sharper positions due to opposite-side castling when Black castles kingside in both cases.

Rubinstein Variation: 3...dxe4 [edit]

abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh

This variation is named after Akiba Rubinstein and can also arise from a different move order: 3.Nd2 dxe4. White has freer development and more space in the centre, which Black intends to neutralise by playing ...c7–c5 at some point. This solid line has undergone a modest revival, featuring in many GM games as a drawing weapon but theory still gives White a slight edge. After 3... dxe4 4. Nxe4, Black has the following options:

  • The most popular line is: 4...Nd7 5.Nf3 Ngf6 6.Nxf6+ Nxf6 when Black is ready for ...c5.
  • 4...Bd7 5.Nf3 Bc6 (the Fort Knox Variation) activating the light-square bishop, which is often played by Alexander Rustemov.

Rare sidelines after 3.Nc3[edit]

One rare sideline after 3.Nc3 is 3...c6, which is known as the Paulsen Variation, after Louis Paulsen. It can also be reached via a Caro-Kann Defence move-order (1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 e6).

Another rare sideline after 3.Nc3 is 3...Nc6, which was played by Aron Nimzowitsch.

Tarrasch Variation: 3.Nd2 [edit]

abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh

The Tarrasch Variation is named after Siegbert Tarrasch. This move became particularly popular during the 1970s and early 1980s when Anatoly Karpov used it to great effect. Though less aggressive than the alternate 3.Nc3, it is still used by top-level players seeking a small, safe advantage.

Like 3.Nc3, 3.Nd2 protects e4, but is different in several key respects: it does not block White's c-pawn from advancing, which means he can play c3 at some point to support his d4-pawn. Hence, it avoids the Winawer Variation as 3...Bb4 is now readily answered by 4.c3. On the other hand, 3.Nd2 develops the knight to an arguably less active square than 3.Nc3, and in addition, it hems in White's dark-square bishop. Hence, White will typically have to spend an extra tempo moving the knight from d2 at some point before developing said bishop.

  • 3... c5 4. exd5 and now Black has two ways to recapture:
    • 4... exd5 this was a staple of many old Karpov–Korchnoi battles, including seven games in their 1974 match, usually leads to Black having an isolated queen's pawn (see isolated pawn). The main line continues 5.Ngf3 Nc6 6.Bb5 Bd6 7.0-0 Nge7 8.dxc5 Bxc5 9.Nb3 Bb6 with a position where, if White can neutralise the activity of Black's pieces in the middlegame, he will have a slight advantage in the ending. Another possibility for White is 5.Bb5+ Bd7 (5...Nc6 is also possible) 6.Qe2+ Be7 7.dxc5 to trade off the bishops and make it more difficult for Black to regain the pawn.
    • 4... Qxd5 is an important alternative for Black; the idea is to trade his c- and d-pawns for White's d- and e-pawns, leaving Black with an extra centre pawn. This constitutes a slight structural advantage, but in return White gains time for development by harassing Black's queen. This interplay of static and dynamic advantages is the reason why this line has become popular in the last decade. Play usually continues 5.Ngf3 cxd4 6.Bc4 Qd6 7.0-0 Nf6 (preventing 8.Ne4) 8.Nb3 Nc6 9.Nbxd4 Nxd4, and here White may stay in the middlegame with 10.Nxd4 or offer the trade of queens with 10.Qxd4, with the former far more commonly played today.
  • 3... Nf6 While the objective of 3...c5 was to break open the centre, 3... Nf6 aims to close it. After 4. e5 Nfd7 5. Bd3 c5 6. c3 Nc6 (6...b6 intends ...Ba6 next to get rid of Black's 'bad' light-square bishop, a recurring idea in the French) 7. Ne2 (leaving f3 open for the queen's knight) 7... cxd4 8. cxd4 f6 9. exf6 Nxf6 10. Nf3 Bd6 Black has freed his pieces at the cost of having a backward pawn on e6. White may also choose to preserve his pawn on e5 by playing 4.e5 Nfd7 5.c3 c5 6.f4 Nc6 7.Ndf3, but his development is slowed as a result, and Black will gain dynamic chances if he can open the position to advantage.
  • 3... Nc6 is known as the Guimard Variation: after 4.Ngf3 Nf6 5.e5 Nd7 Black will exchange White's cramping e-pawn next move by ...f6. However, Black does not exert any pressure on d4 because he cannot play ...c5, so White should maintain a slight advantage, with 6.Be2 or 6 Nb3.
  • 3... Be7 is known as the Morozevich Variation.[5] A fashionable line among top GMs in recent years, this odd-looking move aims to prove that every White move now has its drawbacks, e.g. after 4.Ngf3 Nf6 5.e5 Nfd7 White cannot play f4, whereas 4.Bd3 c5 5.dxc5 Nf6 and 4.e5 c5 5. Qg4 Kf8!? lead to obscure complications. 3...h6?!, with a similar rationale, has also gained some adventurous followers in recent years, including GM Alexander Morozevich.
  • Another rare line is 3... a6, which gained some popularity in the 1970s. Similar to 3...Be7, the idea is to play a waiting move to make White declare his intentions before Black commits to a plan of his own. 3...a6 also controls the b5-square, which is typically useful for Black in most French lines because, for example, White no longer has the option of playing Bb5.

Advance Variation: 3.e5 [edit]

abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh

The main line of the Advance Variation continues 3... c5 4. c3 Nc6 5. Nf3 and then we have a branching point:

  • 5... Qb6, the idea is to increase the pressure on d4 and eventually undermine the white centre. The queen also attacks the b2-square, so White's dark-square bishop cannot easily defend the d4-pawn without losing the b2-pawn. White's most common replies are 6.a3 and 6.Be2.
    • 6.a3 is currently the most important line in the Advance: it prepares 7.b4, gaining space on the queenside. Black may prevent this with 6...c4 intending to take en passant if White plays b4, which creates a closed game where Black fights for control of the b3-square. On the other hand, Black may continue developing with 6...Nh6, intending ...Nf5, which might seem strange as White can double the pawn with Bxh6, but this is actually considered good for Black. Black plays ...Bg7 and ...0-0 and Black's king has adequate defence and White will miss his apparently 'bad' dark-square bishop.
    • 6.Be2 is the other alternative, aiming simply to castle. Once again, a common Black response is 6...Nh6 intending 7...cxd4 8.cxd4 Nf5 attacking d4. White usually responds to this threat with 7.Bxh6 or 7.b3 preparing Bb2.
    • 6.Bd3 cxd4 7.cxd4 Bd7 (7...Nxd4?? 8.Nxd4 Qxd4 9.Bb5+) 8.0-0 Nxd4 9.Nxd4 Qxd4 10.Nc3 is the Milner-Barry Gambit. If Black continues 10...Qxe5, White gains an attack with 11.Re1 Qb8 12.Nxd5 or 11...Qd6 12.Nb5.[6]
  • 5... Bd7 was mentioned by Greco as early as 1620, and was revived and popularised by Viktor Korchnoi in the 1970s. Now a main line, the idea behind the move is that since Black usually plays ...Bd7 sooner or later, he plays it right away and waits for White to show his hand. If White plays 6.a3 in response, modern theory says that Black equalises or is better after 6...f6! The lines are complex, but the main point is that a3 is a wasted move if the black queen is not on b6 and so Black uses the extra tempo to attack the white centre immediately.
  • 5... Nh6 has recently become a popular alternative; the idea is that 6.Bxh6 gxh6 gains Black a semi-open g-file to attack the White king, or Black can play ...Bg7 to support ...f6 to attack White's pawn on e5. If White doesn't take the knight, it will move to f5 to pressure d4, or (after ...f6) to f7 to pressure e5.

There are alternative strategies to 3... c5 that were tried in the early 20th century such as 3...b6, intending to fianchetto the bad bishop and which can transpose to Owen's Defence or 3...Nc6, played by Carlos Guimard, intending to keep the bad bishop on c8 or d7 which is passive and obtains little counterplay. Also, 4...Qb6 5.Nf3 Bd7 intending 6...Bb5 to trade off the 'bad' queen's bishop is possible.

Exchange Variation: 3.exd5 exd5 [edit]

abcdefgh
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh

The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf File Size

Many players who begin with 1.e4 find that the French Defence is the most difficult opening for them to play against due to the closed structure and unique strategies of the system. Thus, many players choose to play the exchange so that the position becomes simple and clearcut. White makes no effort to exploit the advantage of the first move, and has often chosen this line with expectation of an early draw, and indeed draws often occur if neither side breaks the symmetry. An extreme example was Capablanca–Maróczy, Lake Hopatcong 1926, which went: 4.Bd3 Bd6 5.Nf3 Nf6 6.0-0 0-0 7.Bg5 Bg4 8.Re1 Nbd7 9.Nbd2 c6 10.c3 Qc7 11.Qc2 Rfe8 12.Bh4 Bh5 13.Bg3 Bxg3 14.hxg3 Bg6 15.Rxe8+ Rxe8 16.Bxg6 hxg6 17.Re1 Rxe1+ 18.Nxe1 Ne8 19.Nd3 Nd6 20.Qb3 a6 21.Kf1 ½–½.[7]

The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf File

Despite the symmetrical pawn structure, White cannot force a draw. An obsession with obtaining one sometimes results in embarrassment for White, as in Tatai–Korchnoi, Beer Sheva 1978, which continued 4.Bd3 c5!? 5.Nf3 Nc6 6.Qe2+ Be7 7.dxc5 Nf6 8.h3 0-0 9.0-0 Bxc5 10.c3 Re8 11.Qc2 Qd6 12.Nbd2 Qg3 13.Bf5 Re2 14.Nd4 Nxd4 0–1.[8] A less extreme example was Mikhail Gurevich–Short, Manila 1990 where White, a strong Russian grandmaster, played openly for the draw but was ground down by Short in 42 moves.[9]

To create genuine winning chances, White will often play c2–c4 at some stage to put pressure on Black's d5-pawn. Black can give White an isolated queen's pawn by capturing on c4, but this gives White's pieces greater freedom, which may lead to attacking chances. This occurs in lines such as 3.exd5 exd5 4.c4 (played by GMs Normunds Miezis and Maurice Ashley) and 4.Nf3 Bd6 5.c4, which may transpose to the Petroff. Conversely, if White declines to do this, Black may play ...c7–c5 himself, e.g. 4.Bd3 c5, as in the above-cited Tatai–Korchnoi game.

If c2–c4 is not played, White and Black have two main piece setups. White may put his pieces on Nf3, Bd3, Bg5 (pinning the black knight), Nc3, Qd2 or the queen's knight can go to d2 instead and White can support the centre with c3 and perhaps play Qb3. Conversely, when the queen's knight is on c3, the king's knight may go to e2 when the enemy bishop and knight can be kept out of the key squares e4 and g4 by f3. When the knight is on c3 in the first and last of the above strategies, White may choose either short or long castling. The positions are so symmetrical that the options and strategies are the same for both sides.

Another way to unbalance the position is for White or Black to castle on opposite sides of the board. An example of this is the line 4.Bd3 Nc6 5.c3 Bd6 6.Nf3 Bg4 7.0-0 Nge7 8.Re1 Qd7 9.Nbd2 0-0-0.

Early deviations for White[edit]

After 1.e4 e6, almost 90 percent of all games continue 2.d4 d5, but White can try other ideas. The most important of these is 2.d3 d5 3.Nd2, with a version of the King's Indian Attack. White will likely play Ngf3, g3, Bg2, 0-0, c3 and/or Re1 in some order on the next few moves. Black has several ways to combat this setup: 3...c5 followed by ...Nc6, ...Bd6, ...Nf6 or ...Nge7 and ...0-0 is common, 3...Nf6 4.Ngf3 Nc6 plans ...dxe4 and ...e5 to block in the Bg2, and 3...Nf6 4.Ngf3 b6 makes ...Ba6 possible if White's light-square bishop leaves the a6–f1 diagonal. 2.d3 has been used by many leading players over the years, including GMs Pal Benko, Bobby Fischer and Lev Psakhis.

  • 2.f4 is the Labourdonnais Variation, named after Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais, the 19th-century French master.[10] Play can continue 2...d5 3. e5 c5 4. Nf3 Nc6 5.c3 Nge7 6.Na3 Nf5.
  • 2.Qe2 is the Chigorin Variation, which discourages 2...d5 because after 3.exd5 the black pawn is pinned, meaning Black would need to recapture with the queen. Black usually replies 2...c5, after which play can resemble the 2.d3 variation or the Closed Variation of the Sicilian Defence.
  • 2.Nf3 d5 3.Nc3 is the Two Knights Variation: 3...d4 and 3...Nf6 are good replies for Black.
  • 2.c4 (attempting to discourage 2...d5 by Black) is the Steiner Variation. But Black can reply 2...d5 anyway, when after 3.cxd5 exd5 4.exd5 Nf6 the only way for White to hold on to his extra pawn on d5 is to play 5.Bb5+. Black gets good compensation in return for the pawn, however.
  • 2.Bb5 has occasionally been tried. Notably, Henry Bird defeated Max Fleissig with the variation during the Vienna 1873 chess tournament.[11]
  • 2.b3 leads to the Réti Gambit after 2...d5 3.Bb2 dxe4, but Black can also decline it with 3...Nf6 4.e5 Nd7 with White going for f4 and Qg4 before putting the knight on f3.

There are also a few rare continuations after 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5, including 3.Bd3 (the Schlechter Variation), 3.Be3 (the Alapin Gambit), and 3.c4 (the Diemer–Duhm Gambit, which can also be reached via the Queen's Gambit Declined).

Early deviations for Black[edit]

The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf Files

Although 2...d5 is the most consistent move after 1.e4 e6 2.d4, Black occasionally plays other moves. Chief among them is 2...c5, the Franco-Benoni Defence, so-called because it features the ...c7–c5 push characteristic of the Benoni Defence. White may continue 3.d5, when play can transpose into the Benoni, though White has extra options since c2–c4 is not mandated. 3.Nf3, transposing into a normal Sicilian Defence, and 3.c3, transposing into a line of the Alapin Sicilian (usually arrived at after 1.e4 c5 2.c3 e6 3.d4) are also common. Play may also lead back to the French; for example, 1.e4 e6 2.d4 c5 3.c3 d5 4.e5 transposes into the Advance Variation. Another move is 2...b6, which transposes into Owen's Defence or the English Defence. Also possible is 2...f5, the Franco-Hiva Gambit, but this is regarded as dubious.[12]

History[edit]

The French Defence is named after a match played by correspondence between the cities of London and Paris in 1834[1] (although earlier examples of games with the opening do exist). It was Chamouillet, one of the players of the Paris team, who persuaded the others to adopt this defence.[13]

As a reply to 1.e4, the French Defence received relatively little attention in the nineteenth century compared to 1...e5. The first world chess championWilhelm Steinitz said 'I have never in my life played the French Defence, which is the dullest of all openings'.[14] In the early 20th century, Géza Maróczy was perhaps the first world-class player to make it his primary weapon against 1.e4. For a long time, it was the third most popular reply to 1.e4, behind only 1...c5 and 1...e5. However, according to the Mega Database 2007,[15] in 2006, 1...e6 was second only to the Sicilian in popularity.

Historically important contributors to the theory of the defence include Mikhail Botvinnik, Viktor Korchnoi, Aron Nimzowitsch, Tigran Petrosian, Lev Psakhis, Wolfgang Uhlmann and Rafael Vaganian. More recently, its leading practitioners include Evgeny Bareev, Alexey Dreev, Mikhail Gurevich, Alexander Khalifman, Smbat Lputian, Alexander Morozevich, Teimour Radjabov, Nigel Short, Gata Kamsky, and Yury Shulman.

The Exchange Variation was recommended by Howard Staunton in the 19th century,[16] but has been in decline ever since. In the early 1990s Garry Kasparov briefly experimented with it before switching to 3.Nc3. Note that Black's game is made much easier as his queen's bishop has been liberated. It has the reputation of giving immediate equality to Black, due to the symmetrical pawn structure.

The French Tarrasch Variation Pdf File

Like the Exchange, the Advance Variation was frequently played in the early days of the French Defence. Aron Nimzowitsch believed it to be White's best choice and enriched its theory with many ideas. However, the Advance declined in popularity throughout most of the 20th century until it was revived in the 1980s by GM and prominent opening theoretician Evgeny Sveshnikov, who continues to be a leading expert in this line. In recent years, it has become nearly as popular as 3.Nd2; GM Alexander Grischuk has championed it successfully at the highest levels. It is also a popular choice at the club level due to the availability of a simple, straightforward plan involving attacking chances and extra space.

ECO codes[edit]

The Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings includes an alphanumeric classification system for openings that is widely used in chess literature. Codes C00 to C19 are the French Defence, broken up in the following way (all apart from C00 start with the moves 1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5):

  • C00 – 1.e4 e6 without 2.d4, or 2.d4 without 2...d5 (early deviations)
  • C01 – 2.d4 d5 (includes the Exchange Variation, 3.exd5)
  • C02 – 3.e5 (Advance Variation)
  • C03 – 3.Nd2 (includes 3...Be7; C03–C09 cover the Tarrasch Variation)
  • C04 – 3.Nd2 Nc6 (Guimard Variation)
  • C05 – 3.Nd2 Nf6
  • C06 – 3.Nd2 Nf6 4.e5 Nfd7 5.Bd3
  • C07 – 3.Nd2 c5 (includes 4.exd5 Qxd5)
  • C08 – 3.Nd2 c5 4.exd5 exd5
  • C09 – 3.Nd2 c5 4.exd5 exd5 5.Ngf3 Nc6
  • C10 – 3.Nc3 (includes the Rubinstein Variation, 3...dxe4)
  • C11 – 3.Nc3 Nf6 (includes the Steinitz Variation, 4.e5; C11–C14 cover the Classical Variation)
  • C12 – 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 (includes the McCutcheon Variation, 4...Bb4)
  • C13 – 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 dxe4 (Burn Variation)
  • C14 – 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 Be7
  • C15 – 3.Nc3 Bb4 (C15–C19 cover the Winawer Variation)
  • C16 – 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e5
  • C17 – 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e5 c5
  • C18 – 3.Nc3 Bb4 4.e5 c5 5.a3 (includes the Armenian Variation, 5...Ba5)
  • C19 – 3.Nc3 Bb4 4 e5 c5 5.a3 Bxc3+ 6.bxc3 Ne7 7.Nf3 and 7.a4

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ab'London Chess Club vs. Paris Chess Club, corr. 1834'. Chessgames.com.
  2. ^T.D. Harding, French: MacCutcheon [sic] and Advance Lines, Batsford, 1979, pp. 12, 56. ISBN0-7134-2026-X.
  3. ^Although many sources refer to John Lindsay McCutcheon and his eponymous variation as 'MacCutcheon', 'McCutcheon' is the correct spelling. Jeremy Gaige, Chess Personalia, McFarland & Company, 1987, pp. 260, 275. ISBN0-7864-2353-6; David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld, The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed. 1992), Oxford University Press, p. 240, p. 478 n. 1205. ISBN0-19-866164-9.
  4. ^'Wilhelm Steinitz vs. John Lindsay McCutcheon (1885)'. Chessgames.com.
  5. ^'French Defense Tarrasch Variation Morozevich Variation – Chess Opening'. chesstempo.com.
  6. ^*Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1996) [First pub. 1992]. 'Milner-Barry Gambit'. The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 260. ISBN978-0-19-280049-7.
  7. ^'Capablanca vs. Maroczy, Lake Hopatcong 1926'. Chessgames.com.
  8. ^'Tatai vs. Korchnoi, Be'er Sheva 1978'. Chessgames.com.
  9. ^'Gurevich vs. Short, Manila 1990'. Chessgames.com.
  10. ^'C00: French, Labourdonnais variation – 1. e4 e6 2. f4 – Chess Opening explorer'. www.365chess.com.
  11. ^'Bird, Henry – Fleissig, Max 1873 , Vienna , Vienna'. chesstempo.com.
  12. ^Watson, John: Taming Wild Chess Openings p.67
  13. ^Le Palamède edited by St. Amant (1846), p. 20.
  14. ^'The Cable Match Between Messrs.Tschigorin and Steinitz'. The International Chess Magazine. 7.1. January 1891. p. 27. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  15. ^'Mega Database 2007'. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-02-04.
  16. ^p369, Howard Staunton, The Chess-Player's Handbook, 1847, H.G.Bohn.

Further reading[edit]

  • Berg, Emanuel (2013). Grandmaster Repertoire The French Defence Volume One. Quality Chess. ISBN978-1907982408.
  • Berg, Emanuel (2014). Grandmaster Repertoire The French Defence Volume Two. Quality Chess. ISBN978-1907982422.
  • Berg, Emanuel (2015). Grandmaster Repertoire The French Defence Volume Three. Quality Chess. ISBN978-1907982859.
  • Eingorn, Viacheslav (2008). Chess Explained: The French. Gambit Publications. ISBN978-1-904600-95-4.
  • Moskalenko, Viktor (2008). The Flexible French. New In Chess. ISBN978-90-5691-245-1.
  • Moskalenko, Viktor (2010). The Wonderful Winawer. New In Chess. ISBN978-90-5691-327-4.
  • Moskalenko, Viktor (2015). The Even More Flexible French: Strategic Ideas and Powerful Weapons. New In Chess. ISBN978-9056915742.
  • Tzermiadianos, Andreas (2008). How to Beat the French Defence: The Essential Guide to the Tarrasch. Everyman Chess. ISBN9781857445671.
  • Vitiugov, Nikita (2010). The French Defence. Chess Stars. ISBN978-954-8782-76-0.
  • Watson, John (2012). Play the French 4th ed. Everyman Chess. ISBN978-1857446807.
  • Williams, Simon (2011). Attacking Chess The French: A Dynamic Repertoire for Black. Everyman Chess. ISBN978-1857446807.

External links[edit]

The Wikibook Chess Opening Theory has a page on the topic of: French Defence
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=French_Defence&oldid=912986048'