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<p>Questions and Answers about Islam (Vol.2)M. Fethullah Gulen</p><p>Published: 2005 Categorie(s): Tag(s): Islam Quran Ethics Spiritual Religious 'Questions and Answers' 'Quran and Science' 'Islam and Science' Messiah Mahdi Dialogue Darwinism Positivism</p><p>1</p><p>About the AuthorBorn in Erzurum, in eastern Turkey, in 1941, M. Fethullah Glen is an Islamic scholar and thinker, and a prolific writer and poet. He was trained in the religious sciences by several celebrated Muslim scholars and spiritual masters. Glen also studied the principles and theories of modern social and physical sciences. Based on his exceptional skills in learning and focused self-study, he soon surpassed his peers. In 1959, after attaining excellent examination results, he was awarded a state preachers license (in Edirne), and was promoted to a post in Izmir, Turkeys third largest province, in 1966. It was here that Glen started to crystallize his theme and expand his audience base. In his sermons and speeches he emphasized the pressing social issues of the times: his particular aim was to urge the younger generation to harmonize intellectual enlightenment with wise spirituality and a caring, humane activism. Glen did not restrict himself to teaching in the inner cities. He traveled around the provinces in Anatolia and lectured not only in mosques, but also at town meetings and corner coffee houses. This enabled him to reach a more representative cross-section of the population and to attract the attention of the academic community, especially the student body. The subject matter of his speeches, whether formal or informal, was not restricted explicitly to religious questions; he also talked about education, science, Darwinism, about the economy and social justice. It was the depth and quality of his speeches on such a wide range of topics that most impressed the academic community, and won their attention and respect. Glen retired from formal teaching duties in 1981, having inspired a whole generation of young students. His efforts, dating from the 1960s, especially in educational reform, have made him one of the best-known and respected figures in Turkey. From 1988 to 1991, he gave a series of sermons as preacher emeritus in some of the most famous mosques in major population centers, while continuing to deliver his message in the form of popular conferences, not only in Turkey, but also in Western Europe.</p><p>Main IdeasIn his speeches and writings Glen envisions a twenty-first century in which we shall witness the birth of a spiritual dynamic that will revitalize long-dormant moral values; an age of tolerance,</p><p>2</p><p>understanding, and international cooperation that will ultimately lead, through intercultural dialogue and a sharing of values, to a single, inclusive civilization. In the field of education, he has spearheaded the establishment of many charitable organizations to work for the welfare of the community, both within and without Turkey. He has inspired the use of mass media, notably television, to inform the public, of matters of pressing concern to them, individually and collectively. Glen believes the road to justice for all is dependent on the provision of an adequate and appropriate universal education. Only then will there be sufficient understanding and tolerance to secure respect for the rights of others. To this end, he has, over the years, encouraged the social elite and community leaders, powerful industrialists as well as small businessmen, to support quality education. With donations from these sources, educational trusts have been able to establish many schools, both in Turkey and abroad. Glen has stated that in the modern world the only way to get others to accept your ideas is by persuasion. He describes those who resort to force as being intellectually bankrupt; people will always demand freedom of choice in the way they run their affairs and in their expression of their spiritual and religious values. Democracy, Glen argues, in spite of its many shortcomings, is now the only viable political system, and people should strive to modernize and consolidate democratic institutions in order to build a society where individual rights and freedoms are respected and protected, where equal opportunity for all is more than a dream.</p><p>Interfaith and Intercultural ActivitiesSince his retirement, Glen has concentrated his efforts on establishing a dialogue among the factions representing different ideologies, cultures, religions and nations. In 1999, his paper The Necessity of Interfaith Dialogue was presented to the Parliament of Worlds Religions in Cape Town, December 1-8. He maintains that dialogue is a must and that people, regardless of nation or political borders, have far more in common than they realize. Given all of this, Glen considers it both worthwhile and necessary for a sincere dialogue to be established in order to increase mutual understanding. To this end, he has helped to establish the Journalists and Writers Foundation (1994), whose activities to promote dialogue and tolerance among all strata of the society have been warmly welcomed by</p><p>3</p><p>people from almost all walks of life. Again to this end, Glen visits and receives leading figures, not only from among the Turkish population, but from all over the world. Pope John Paul II at the Vatican, the late John OConnor, Archbishop of New York, Leon Levy, former president of The Anti-Defamation League are among many leading representatives of world religions with whom Glen has met to discuss dialogue and take initiatives in this respect. In Turkey, the Vaticans Ambassador to Turkey, the Patriarch of the Turkish Orthodox Church, the Patriarch of the Turkish Armenian community, the Chief Rabbi of the Turkish Jewish community and many other leading figures in Turkey have frequently met with him, portraying an example of how sincere dialogue can be established between people of faith. In his meeting with Pope John Paul II at the Vatican (1998), Glen presented a proposal to take firm steps to stop the conflict in the Middle East via collaborative work on this soil, a place where all three religions originated. In his proposal, he also underlined the fact that science and religion are in fact two different aspects that emanate from the same truth: Humankind from time to time has denied religion in the name of science and denied science in the name of religion, arguing that the two present conflicting views. All knowledge belongs to God and religion is from God. How then can the two be in conflict? To this end, our joint efforts directed at inter-religious dialogue can do much to improve understanding and tolerance among people. Glen released a press declaration renouncing the September 11th terrorist attacks on the USA, which he regarded as a great blow to world peace that unfairly tarnished the credit of believers: terror can never be used in the name of Islam or for the sake of any Islamic ends. A terrorist cannot be a Muslim and a Muslim cannot be a terrorist. A Muslim can only be the representative and symbol of peace, welfare, and prosperity. Glens efforts for worldwide peace have been echoed at conferences and symposiums. The Peaceful Heroes Symposium (April 11-13, 2003) at the University of Texas, Austin, produced a list of peacemakers over 5,000 years of human history. Glen was mentioned among contemporary heroes of peace, in a list which includes names such as Jesus, Buddha, Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Mother Teresa. Glen contributes to a number of journals and magazines. He writes the editorial page for several magazines. He writes the lead article for The Fountain, Yeni mit, Sznt, and Yamur, leading popular and spiritual thought magazines in Turkey. He has written more than forty</p><p>4</p><p>books, hundreds of articles, and recorded thousands of audio and videocassettes. He has delivered innumerable speeches on many social and religious issues. Some of his booksmany of which have been best-sellers in Turkeyhave been made available in English translations, such as, The Messenger of God: Muhammad - An Analysis of the Prophets Life, Questions and Answers about Faith, Pearls of Wisdom, Prophet Muhammad as Commander, The Essentials of the Islamic Faith, Towards the Lost Paradise, Key Concepts in the Practice of Sufism. A number have also been translated into German, Russian, Albanian, Japanese, Indonesian, and Spanish. The educational trusts inspired by Gulen have established countless non-profit voluntary organizations-foundations and associations- in Turkey and abroad which support many scholarships. Though a well-known public figure, Glen has always shied away from involvement in formal politics. Glens admirers include leading journalists, academics, TV personalities, politicians, and Turkish and foreign state authorities. They see in him a true innovator and unique social reformer who practices what he preaches. They see him as a peace activist, an intellectual, a religious scholar, a mentor, author and poet, a great thinker and spiritual guide who has devoted his life to seeking the solutions for societys ills and spiritual needs. They see the movement he helped to nurture as a movement dedicated to education, but an education of the heart and soul as well as of the mind, aimed at reviving and invigorating the whole being to achieve competence and providing goods and services useful to others.</p><p>5</p><p>PrefaceThe primary duty of those thinkers that have a clear conscience is to give comprehensive and satisfactory answers to questions that have been raised merely to confuse people's minds; they rack their brains, mining for ideas with the pickax of thought. In a way, this is their raison d'etre. A community without such figures of deep reflection is indeed a poor one. A society whose members have turned their backs on such people can be considered one that has failed to comprehend the purpose of their own existence. The questions 'how' and 'why have existed since the beginning of the world. These are the questions through which the world is given its meaning. This is what we mean when we say 'this world is the realm of wisdom.' That is, God executes His commands or acts in this world behind the veil of causality. Though God is the Creator and the Ultimate Agent, everything happens according to or within the framework of certain causes. As a matter of fact, inquiring into the relation between cause and effect is wisdom in and of itself. If there were not for the thought provoking questions (those that are free from evil intentions) how would we be able to talk about wisdom and the All-Wise One? However, trying to answer every question we face is an unnecessary challenge. When the archangel Gabriel asked the Prophet about when the end of the world would occur, he replied: 'The one asked does not know more than the one asking.' This answer presents an example of wisdom for us. To sixty out of every hundred questions asked to him, Imam Abu Yusuf replied 'I don't know.' Surprised by this, those inquiring retorted, saying: 'You are paid to answer our questions, but for the most part you answer 'I don't know.' How can you explain this?' The great Imam gave them the following meaningful reply: 'You are paying me for the things I know, and if you had paid for what I don't know, the whole world would not have sufficed.' There is also a proper manner in asking such questions. Those asked out of genuine wonder and in an acceptable manner are of utmost importance, in our view. Likewise, the answers to be given to them are very difficult, but critical. Lazy brains cannot ask good questions. We cannot talk about action of thought as far as dampened minds are concerned. Another hadith concerning Gabriel teaches us how to ask. Once, Gabriel appeared in human form and kindly asked the Prophet for permission to approach him. He</p><p>6</p><p>asked permission three times, and the fourth time he kneeled, putting his hands on his knees, and asked again. He then proceeded to ask critical questions like 'What is iman? What is' Islam? What is ihsan?' Gabriel knew the answers to these questions, but his purpose of disguising himself and posing these questions was to help others attain this information. A question is asked for a certain purpose. Asking a question for the sake of displaying one's own knowledge or asking merely to test the other person is worthless. If a question is asked for the purpose of learning or in order to let others find out the information (as in the example of Gabriel above the questioner may already know the answer), it can be considered a question that has been posed in the correct manner. Questions of this kind are like seeds of wisdom. Gabriel's questions are very good examples. He later went on to affirm the answers that he received; this signifies his acceptance of the answers as being correct. In any other case it would not be proper for the person asking a question to affirm the answer. Moreover, Gabriel was there to teach the religion and he instantly affirmed that what the Prophet had said was in full compliance with the Revelation. Such an affirmation is proper only in such a context. A good question, i.e. one that is acceptable in terms of manner and intention, inspires the answerer and provides food for thought. Asking is a skill, and answering satisfactorily is a virtue. It is with this in mind that the book you are about to read has been put together. The first volume addressed to more essential questions concerning Islamic faith; e.g. God and the nature of His existence; can Islam solve every problem? did Prophet Muhammad write the Qur'an? Prophethood; Satan, etc. Although the questions included in this second volume have been selected on the assumption that the reader is already informed of the content of the first volume, an independent reading is still possible for each question-answer is a separate entity and the book does not develop one question upon another. This book is a translation and like all translations this represents our best attempt to convey the writer's message fairly and dearly. One major problem with the translation of a Turkish text is that it has only one pronoun for the third person and it is not gender-specific as in he or she in English. For reasons of brevity and style, we have settled on the use of 'man' in some places, humanity' or 'humankind' in others, where some editors might have preferred 'men and women' or a 'human being,' 'a person' or another such expression. The use of the word 'man'</p><p>7</p><p>does not indicate that women are excluded from the author's exhortations, both men and women are addressed. Muhammed etin Note: For the convenience of ebook reading devices, some of the titles are shortened to fit into contents section of the book.</p><p>8</p><p>Chapter</p><p>1</p><p>Wisdom in the Message of The Qur'anTime of the Coming of Rain and the Sex of the BabyIt appears that the time of the coming of rain and the sex...</p>