Autodata Frame Dimensions Manual Transmission

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TRANSMISSION NUMBER The transmission can be identified by means of a plale afftxed 10 the end cover on manual gearboxes or the torque converter housing on automatic transmission. The uppermost number relates to the transmission type while the bottom number is the fabrication number.

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Ford E-Series
Overview
ManufacturerFord
Production1961–present (limited as of 2015, only stripped chassis and cutaway produced)
Model years1961–present
AssemblyLorain, Ohio, United States (until plant closure)
Avon Lake, Ohio, United States
Oakville, Canada[1]
Nanchang, China
Body and chassis
Class
Chronology
SuccessorFord Transit (United States & Canada)

1969 Camaro Engine Steel Frame Mount & Motor Mount Kit Fits: All SB Engines Includes: Motor Mounts & Assembly Line Correct Mounting Hardware USA MADE. OE Style reproduction 396 427 crossmember 4 speed with manual transmission. Our part is not the light weight, generic a. 1967 1968 1969: $139.95. Camaro transmission mounting bolt kit. Automatic Transmission Dimensions (Click on the name of the transmission you are interested in.).

The Ford E-Series, also known as the Ford Econoline in Mexico and Ford Club Wagon, is a line of full-size vans (both cargo and passenger) and truck chassis from the Ford Motor Company. The line was introduced in 1961 as a compact van and produced through four generations. The E-series is available in 2015 only as a stripped chassis and cutaway. Other versions have been replaced by the Ford Transit.

The E-Series has been a separate platform since 1968, it uses many components from the F-Series line of pickup trucks. The Econoline is manufactured at Ford's Ohio Assembly plant in Avon Lake, Ohio following the closure of the Lorain Assembly plant in December 2005.

Since 1980, E-Series has been the best selling American full-sized van, and held 79.6% of the full-size van market in the United States in 2007, with 168,722 vehicles sold.[2]

The E-series was available with a GCWR (Gross Combined Weight Rating) of up to 20,000 lb (9,072 kg) making it a base for recreational vehicles and for towing trailers.[3]

Ninety-five percent of van sales are to commercial or fleet-end users; about half are cargo vans. The E-Series cargo area featured a double-wall design that made the exterior sheet metal less vulnerable to damage from shifting cargo.[4]

In early 2007, the E-Series was listed by Autodata as one of the top 20 best-selling vehicles in the United States, most likely due to fleet sales. In China, the Ford E-Series (E250 and E350) are manufactured by Jiangling Motors with Ford name plates. As of 2014, the Ford E-Series was marketed in North America, the Middle East, and China in LHD only. It has been discontinued in Mexico.

  • 1First generation (1961–1967)
  • 2Second generation (1968–1974)
  • 3Third generation (1975–1991)
  • 4Fourth generation (1992–present)

First generation (1961–1967)

Ford E-Series
1961–1967 Ford Econoline (customized)
Overview
Also calledFord Falcon Club Wagon
Mercury Econoline (Canada)
Production1961–1967
Body and chassis
Body style3-door van
2-door pickup truck
LayoutFMR layout
RelatedFord Falcon
Powertrain
Engine144 cu in (2.4 L) Falcon Six I6
170 cu in (2.8 L) Thriftpower Six I6
240 cu in (3.9 L) I6
Transmission3-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase90.0 in (2,286.0 mm)[5]
Width75.0 in (1,905.0 mm)[5]
Height76.9 in (1,953.3 mm)[5]

Based on the compact Ford Falcon, the first Ford Econoline was introduced for the 1961 model year. Sized roughly to compete with the Chevrolet Corvair 95 (Greenbrier Sportswagon) and Volkswagen Type 2, which was 172.3 in (4,376 mm) long. It was originally offered as a cargo van, an eight-passenger van with three rows of seats (which carried the Ford Falcon name) and as a pickup truck. A 165 lb (75 kg) counterweight was fitted over the rear wheels to balance the front-heavy vehicle; this was sometimes removed by later owners. The implementation of situating the driver on top of the front axle with the engine near the front wheels is called, in the US, a 'cab over' short for cab over engine configuration. In Europe it is called a 'forward control' vehicle. The body styling borrowed heavily from the, smaller, UK produced, Thames 400E which had been in production since 1957 and the 1956-64 Jeep Forward Control.

Instead of the rear-mounted engine used by Volkswagen and Chevrolet, the first E-Series had a flat nose with the engine between and behind the front seats. Early models had a 144 CID inline 6-cylinder engine with a three-speed manual transmission. Later models had 170 CID or 240 CID engines with a three-speed manual or automatic transmission. It was an immediate success with utilities like the Bell Telephone System.

In its first year, 29,932 standard vans, 6,571 custom Econoline buses, 11,893 standard pickups and 3,000 custom pickups were made. The success of the Econoline led to its layout adopted in 1964 by the Chevrolet Van/GMC Handi-Van and Dodge A100; it would also be utilized internationally and sold by Mitsubishi, Nissan, and Toyota, with microvans called the Subaru Sambar and the Daihatsu Hijet.

Mercury Econoline

In rural Canada, where automobile dealers were scarce, the Econoline was sold as a Mercury alongside the M-Series truck lineup. Only the first generation of Econolines were sold as Mercurys; the next van sold by the division would be the 1993 Villager minivan.

  • First Generation Models 1961–1967
  • 1961–1967 Falcon van

  • 1961–1967 Econoline with camper conversion

  • 1961–1967 Econoline with camper conversion, rear view

  • 1965 Mercury Econoline pickup, rear view

Second generation (1968–1974)

Second generation
1972–1974 Ford Club Wagon
Overview
Production1968–1974
Body and chassis
Body style3-door van
LayoutFR layout
Powertrain
Engine240 CID (3.9 L) I6
300 CID (4.9 L) I6
302 CID (4.9 L) Windsor V8
Transmission3-Speed Manual
3-speed Cruise-O-Matic automatic
Dimensions
WheelbaseSWB: 105.5 in (2,679.7 mm)
LWB: 123.5 in (3,136.9 mm)

As the result of a lengthy United Auto Workers strike in the late spring of 1968, the launch of the second-generation Econoline van was pushed back into the 1969 model year. Technically, the model line went on hiatus for the 1968 model year, although it was made up by a relatively early launch for 1969. Shedding its Falcon roots, the second-generation Econoline became a heavier-duty vehicle, sharing many of its underpinnings with the F-Series full-size pickups.

Chassis

While the unibody construction of the previous generation van was carried over, a major change was made in the overall layout in the body and chassis of the Econoline. To build a heavier-duty chassis, the mid-engine forward-control layout was abandoned in favor of a front-engine layout with the axle placed forward; this also allowed the use of the 'Twin I-Beam' front suspension used in the F-Series trucks. The redesign in the configuration resulted in major growth; the Econoline grew 15 inches in wheelbase; a 18-inch longer long-wheelbase model became the largest full-size van offered in North America at the time.

As they had become introduced as options in Dodge and Chevrolet/GMC vans, Ford introduced a V8 engine option into the powertrain line.

Body

With the change of chassis and axle configurations, the Econoline gained a conventional hood for engine access (though most engine access remained from the interior). To aid in engine compartment ventilation, the model was given a conventional grille, styled similar to the F-Series.

For 1971, the grille was redesigned to match the updated F-Series. For 1972, a sliding rear door became an option; introduced on a cutaway van chassis was the Hi-Cube van, a cab-chassis version of the Econoline with a box-van body. The introduction of the cab-chassis variant would become popular in the recreational-vehicle industry (a Class C RV), a segment still dominated by the E-Series in the 2010s.

Interior

In the inside of the Econoline, the shift of the engine location moved the engine housing from under the seats to in front of the driver and front passenger, under the windshield. While the Econoline cargo van remained, it was joined by an Econoline passenger van (replacing the Falcon van). To attract more buyers to passenger vans, Ford introduced two new trims of the passenger van, the Ford Club Wagon and Ford Club Wagon Chateau. Based on the long-wheelbase version, the Chateau featured air conditioning, houndstooth fabric on all seats, an AM/FM sound system, and the option of 12-passenger seating.

  • Second Generation Models 1969–1974
  • 1969-70 Econoline Window Van

  • 1969-70 Econoline Window Van with U.S. Army markings

  • 1971 Econoline motorhome conversion

  • 1973 Econoline 100

  • 1974 Ford Econoline E-300 Quadravan

Third generation (1975–1991)

Third generation
1983–1991 Ford Club Wagon
Overview
Also calledFord Club Wagon
Production1975–1991
Body and chassis
Body style3-door van
LayoutFR layout
PlatformFord VN platform
RelatedFord Carousel
Powertrain
Engine240CI
300 CIDI6
302 CID WindsorV8
351 CID Windsor V8
460 CID 385 V8
6.9 LNavistardiesel V8
7.3 LNavistardiesel V8
Transmission3-speed manual
4-speed manual
3-speed automatic
4-speed automatic

For 1975, the Econoline/Club Wagon were given a complete redesign. Based on an all-new chassis, Ford became the first American manufacturer to adapt body-on-frame construction to a full-size van.

The Econoline would quickly used not on its own, but as the basis for other vehicles. With a full frame, the Econoline became popular as a cutaway van chassis; the design served as a basis for many ambulances, and various types of trucks and buses. The shared drivetrain with the F-Series marked the beginning of aftermarket four-wheel drive conversions. During the 1970s, the Econoline became popular as a basis for van conversions. Using the sparsely-equipped Econoline cargo van as a basis, a luxurious interior was fitted, along with extensive customization of the exterior.

A stillborn variant of the Econoline, the Ford Carousel, nearly reached production as the first American minivan. While a running protoype was produced and planned for a potential 1975-1976 introduction, lack of funding led to the discontinuation of the project.

Chassis

1975-1979 Ford Econoline 150 Chateau
1990 Econoline 350 cutaway van in use by FedEx
1980s Ford Club Wagon XLT

To increase the versatility of the full-size van line, the Econoline was developed using body-on-frame construction for the first time. In addition to increasing the strength of the chassis, the configuration allowed more commonality with the F-Series trucks. As before, the Twin I-Beam front suspension was utilized. In its new configuration, the engine was moved further forward and lowered, relative to the body. In a massive growth spurt, the short-wheelbase configuration was 0.5 inches longer than the previous long-wheelbase chassis; the new long-wheelbase chassis was 138 inches, the longest wheelbase full-size van sold until 1990. In 1988, the 124-inch wheelbase was discontinued, leaving the 138-inch wheelbase as standard.

In 1982, to increase the fuel economy of the Econoline without a major loss in engine output, Ford introduced the option of a 6.9L IDI diesel V8 produced by International Harvester; in 1988, this was enlarged to 7.3L. The diesel V8 engines were available only in Econoline 350s (or Club Wagons sold on the same chassis).

Due to the popularity of automatic transmissions in full-size vans, Ford discontinued the 3-speed manual and 4-speed manual transmissions after the 1987 model year.

Body

Unlike its predecessors, Ford designed the 1975 Econoline with a true 'two-box' layout. Similar to the Ford Transit of the time, the configuration moved the engine as far forward as possible and lower in the chassis than in its predecessor; although the hood was nearly twice as long, the hoodline was much lower. A higher degree of parts commonality with the F-Series made itself known in the bodystyling: the vent windows, taillights, bumpers, and wheels were common items between the two vehicles.

During its sixteen-year production run, the exterior of the Econoline/Club Wagon would remain nearly unaltered. In 1978, the Super Van/Super Wagon was introduced; based on the 138-inch wheelbase, it was a rear body extension allowing for extra cargo room or an extra row of seating (for up to 15 passengers). In 1979, a minor facelift updated the grille design; round headlights were replaced by rectangular units. In 1983, the Ford Blue Oval was added to the grille, replacing the 'FORD' lettering on the hood.

Although the 1986 Ford Aerostar minivan would introduce styling far different from the Econoline, the basic styling of the full-size van would heavily influence the Ford Ranger (and its SUV offspring, the Ford Bronco II).

Interior

Inside, the redesign of the chassis expanded interior room, though the rear of the engine still remained between the front seats; an engine cover still provided access for servicing. Sharing many controls with the F-Series, the new design also improved interior ergonomics. In three body sizes, the Econoline was produced in a cargo van and passenger van, with the latter produced in three trim levels; base, Custom and Chateau. In addition, the Club Wagon was produced solely as a passenger van. After 1980, this was replaced by F-Series nomenclature of XL and XLT. In line with the F-Series, the Econoline/Club Wagon was sold in 100/150/250/350 variants, with the Econoline 100 discontinued in 1983 (Club Wagon chassis variants were not denoted).

During the 1970s, the Econoline became popular as a basis for van conversions. Using the sparsely-equipped Econoline 150 or Econoline 250 cargo van as a basis, a luxurious interior was fitted, along with extensive customization of the exterior.

Autodata Frame Dimensions Manual Transmission
1975–1991 Ford E-Series Dimensions[6]
124' WB138' WB (Standard Van)138' WB (Super Van)
Length186.8 in (4,745 mm)206.8 in (5,253 mm)226.8 in (5,761 mm)
Wheelbase124 in (3,149.6 mm)138 in (3,505.2 mm)
Height79.1–79.9 in (2,009.1–2,029.5 mm)79.2–84.4 in (2,011.7–2,143.8 mm)80.9–84.8 in (2,054.9–2,153.9 mm)
Width79.9 in (2,029 mm)

Fourth generation (1992–present)

Fourth generation
Overview
Also calledFord Econoline (until 2006; name still used in Mexico according to Ford Mexico's website)
Ford Club Wagon (until 1998)
Ford Econoline Wagon (1999–2005)
Production1991–2014 (passenger/cargo van)
1991–present (cutaway/stripped chassis)
Model years1992–2014 (passenger/cargo van)
1992–present (cutaway/stripped chassis)
Body and chassis
Body style3/4-door van
LayoutFR layout
PlatformFord VN platform
Powertrain
Engine4.9 L (300 cu in) Truck SixI6
4.9 L (302 cu in) WindsorV8
5.8 L (351 cu in) Windsor V8
7.5 L (460 cu in) 385/Lima V8
Navistar 7.3 L IH IDI Diesel V8
Navistar 7.3 L Power Stroke Diesel V8
4.2 L EssexV6
4.6 L Triton V8
5.4 L Triton V8
6.8 L TritonV10
Navistar 365 CID 6.0 L Power Stroke Diesel V8
Transmission4-speed AOD automatic
5-speed TorqShiftautomatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase138 in (3,505 mm)
Length1992–2008
Regular: 212 in (5,385 mm)
Extended: 232 in (5,893 mm)
2009–
Regular: 216.7 in (5,504 mm)
Extended: 236.7 in (6,012 mm)
Width79.3–79.9 in (2,014–2,029 mm)
Height80.7–84.1 in (2,050–2,136 mm)
Curb weight4,773 lb (2,165 kg)

For the first time since 1975, the Ford Econoline was given a nearly complete redesign for the 1992 model year. As before, the fleet-oriented Econoline 150, 250, and 350 were retained in cargo and passenger models; the consumer-oriented Club Wagon was introduced in XLT and luxury Chateau models, reviving a trim level used in the late 1970s. Sold in a single wheelbase with two body lengths, the Econoline/Club Wagon was available in several passenger configurations, from 2 to 15 passengers.

The consumer-oriented Chateau Club Wagon version was Motor Trend magazine's Truck of the Year for 1992.

For 1999, the Club Wagon name was discontinued, becoming the Wagon version of the Econoline. For 2001, in the United States, the Econoline name was dropped (it was dropped in Canada in 1995), with the Econoline nomenclature being shortened to E-150, E-250, E-350, similar to the F-Series nomenclature.

To celebrate its half-century mark, the E-Series featured a Special 50th Anniversary version for the 2011 model year.[7]

After 2014, the passenger van and cargo van variants of the E-Series were discontinued in North America in favor of the newly introduced Ford Transit, but cutaway cab and stripped-chassis variants remained in production for 2015 and will be built 'until the end of the decade', according to Ford.[8]

Chassis

While given a major styling upgrade, to lower development costs, Ford utilized the existing VN platform underpinning the previous Econoline/Club Wagon. Sharing many components with the F-Series trucks, the E-Series maintained the 'Twin I-Beam' front suspension common to nearly all rear-wheel drive Ford trucks in North America. In the rear, a leaf-spring with live rear axle was used.

In 1992, the powertrain line was largely carried over; the E-Series was equipped with the 4.9L inline-six as a base engine with an option of three gasoline V8s (a 5.0L V8, 5.8L V8, and a 7.5L V8). A 7.3L diesel V8 sourced from Navistar was also an option, becoming turbocharged in 1993. In 1994, the 7.3L IDI turbodiesel was replaced by a 7.3L Ford Powerstroke diesel, also sourced by Navistar.

For 1997, nearly the entire engine line was replaced, with only the 7.3L Powerstroke diesel remaining. A 4.2 L Essex V6 replaced the 4.9L inline-6 and the 7.5 L V8 was replaced by a 6.8 L Triton V10. The 5.0L and 5.8L Windsor V8s were replaced by 4.6 L and 5.4 L Triton V8s, respectively.

During the 2003 model year, the 7.3L Powerstroke diesel was replaced by a 6.0L Powerstroke diesel, again sourced by Navistar; due to the lack of airflow in the engine compartment compared to the Ford Super Duty trucks, the version used in the E-Series required to be slightly detuned. In contrast to the 7.3L V8, the 6.0L Powerstroke is intercooled.

In 2006, output of the 6.8 L Triton V10 was increased to 305 hp (227 kW; 309 PS) and 420 lb·ft (569 N·m) torque, and to 235/440 for the 6.0L diesel.

As part of the 2008 update of the E-Series, the chassis underwent several updates. Although the Twin I-Beam front suspension was carried over (becoming the last Ford vehicle to use the system), other upgrades to the braking, suspension and steering systems improved ride and handling, braking performance and load carrying capability.[9] The chassis and suspension improvements increased in the maximum gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) from 14,050 lb (6373 kg) to a class-leading 14,500 lb (6577 kg). Additionally, the maximum front gross axle weight rating (GAWR) is increased by about 10 percent, from 4,600 lb (2087 kg) to a class-leading 5,000 lb (2268 kg).

In 2009, Ford became the first automotive manufacturer to offer a full-size van that is capable of using E85; it was available on the 2009 4.6 L and 5.4 L engines.

Following the introduction of the 6.7L Powerstroke V8 in the Ford Super Duty trucks in 2010, the diesel engine option was discontinued in the E-Series. According to Ford the primary reason is due to space limitations.[10] It was unconfirmed whether this means the engine physically does not fit or there is not enough space to allow for proper ventilation.

Exterior

While using the same two-box layout and proportions, the 1992 redesign of the E-Series was given a far more aerodynamic body than its predecessor. Although Ford utilized the longest forward body of any full-size van, the hood was angled downward slightly and the windshield raked back; if specified, all side window glass was flush-mounted. For the first time, the E-Series utilized flush-mounted wraparound taillights and flush-mounted headlights (the latter were an option, standard on Club Wagons). In addition, the E-Series was the first full-size van to utilize a center-mounted brake light.

For 1995, a minor change was made as the amber turn signals were removed from the taillights; the front turn signals were no longer completely amber.

For 1997, a minor facelift involved the grille; to keep in line with other Ford products, the eggcrate grille was replaced by an eight-hole grille with an oval cutout (combining the styling of both Ford cars and trucks).

For 2003, another facelift updated the E-Series with a larger grille. Similar to the Super Duty trucks, the Ford emblem was centered in a 3-slot grille in between two openings.

For 2008, the E-Series was given a major exterior redesign forward of the windshield, with new fenders, hood and a larger grille, similar in a style to both the Super Duty trucks and the 1979-1991 Econolines.

Interior

When redesigning the interior of the E-Series for 1992, Ford chose to modernize the driver compartment of the vehicle. Sharing its controls and components with the Ford F-Series and Aerostar, the E-Series/Club Wagon was notable for being the first full-size van equipped with a driver's side airbag as standard equipment (on all models except the Econoline 350). While the front engine cover still dominated the space between the front seats, part of the redesign freed up additional passenger room.

For 1994 model year vehicles, air-conditioning systems were converted to CFC-free R134a refrigerant beginning with September 1993 production.

For 1997, the entire drivers' compartment was redesigned. In addition to a smaller engine cover, a more ergonomic dashboard was added; dual airbags were added to all models, replacing the 'brick'-style steering wheel.

For 2001, the E-150 Traveler was launched, partially intended as a successor to the previous Club Wagon and Chateau models; due to the adoption of minivans and SUVs for family vehicles, it was sold only for 2001.

For 2003, coinciding with the exterior facelift, the interior received a new engine cover with redesigned cup holders. For the first time since 1974, the E-Series was given a glove box. Shared with the Super Duty trucks, the instrument panel was given a digital odometer; for the first time, certain versions were available with a tachometer.

For 2009, the dashboard was completely redesigned, with only the steering column carried over. Designed to share components with the Super Duty trucks, the E-Series now comes with the Ford Sync system, in-dash navigation as an option, and integrated auxiliary switches. The glovebox was relocated from the engine cover to forward of the passenger seat. Another option first introduced on the vehicle is a rear-view backup camera; widely available on smaller vehicles, it is the first in the full-size van segment.

  • Fourth generation Ford E-Series / Econoline models (1997-2015)
  • A circa 1992–1994 Ford Club Wagon passenger van, from Maryland. This particular version can seat up to fifteen passengers.

  • A circa 1997–2000 Ford Econoline cargo van, from Maryland.

  • A circa 1995–1996 Ford E-350 school bus from Quebec, Canada. The body is manufactured by the Corbeil Bus Corporation.

  • A 2002 E-350 Box Truck outfitted as a disaster restoration vehicle from Bennington, New Hampshire

  • A circa 2003–2005 Ford E-350 cutaway box truck van, from Quebec, Canada.

  • A circa 2008 Ford E-Series passenger wagon, photographed in College Park, Maryland.

  • A circa 2010 Ford E-450 powered by compressed natural gas, used as public transportation in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

  • A 2014 model year E350 'Cutaway' featuring a contractors type body manufactured by Rockport.

  • Pre and post-refresh fourth generation models side by side photographed in Granite City, Illinois.

Sales

Calendar YearUS sales
1997186,690[11]
1998206,026[12]
1999202,024[13]
2000187,027
2001159,565
2002165,085[14]
2003161,721
2004171,017[15]
2005179,543
2006180,457
2007168,722
2008124,596
200985,735
2010108,258
2011116,874
2012122,423
2013125,356[16]
2014103,263[17]

Phaseout

2015 Ford Transit 150 Wagon (standard roof and wheelbase)

For the 2015 model year, passenger and cargo versions of the E-Series/Econoline were discontinued, replaced by the Ford Transit, produced by Kansas City Assembly in Claycomo, Missouri. Due to the market commonality of the E-Series, stripped chassis and cutaway cab models are still produced alongside the commercial versions of the Transit. Ford will continue production of the E-Series for commercial users through the 2015 model year and possibly until “the end of the decade”.[8]

Along with significant gains in payload, interior space, flexibility, and fuel economy, the decision to replace the E-Series with the Transit is part of Ford's movement to consolidate its product lines globally, as it has done with the Ford Fiesta, Ford Focus/Ford C-Max, Ford Fusion/Ford Mondeo, the Ford Escape/Ford Kuga, and the Ford Transit Connect. The Transit is the first full-size truck to utilize Kinetic Design for its styling.

See also

References

  1. 'Plant Information: Oakville Assembly Complex'. Media.ford.com. Retrieved May 31, 2011.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  2. 'Crossovers, Lincoln highlight Ford's 2007 sales performance; further growth expected in 2008'. Media.Ford.com. January 3, 2009.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  3. 'Ford RV and owing Guide'(PDF). 2011.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  4. 'Ford Introduces The New 2008 E-Series Van'. BlueOvalNews. March 7, 2007.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  5. 5.05.15.2'Directory Index: FMC Trucks-Vans/1963_Trucks-Vans/1963_Ford_Falcon_Van_Brochure'. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved February 6, 2014.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  6. 'Directory Index: FMC Trucks-Vans/1980_Trucks-Vans/1980_Ford_Econoline_Van'. Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved February 6, 2014.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  7. 'Ford's E-Series Vans Celebrate 50 Years of Success; 2011 lineup features special anniversary edition'. Media.ford.com. September 13, 2010. Retrieved May 31, 2011.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  8. 8.08.1Jonathon Ramsey (April 18, 2014). 'Ford E-Series chassis cabs and cutaways to survive mass Transit onslaught'. autoblog.com. Retrieved October 28, 2014.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  9. 'Ford Rolls Out Super Duty-Inspired 2008 E-Series Vans'. Edmunds Inside Line. March 9, 2007.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  10. Ford Power Stroke engine
  11. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/press/date/19990106/press002196.html
  12. http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ford-motor-company-topples-december-and-full-year-us-sales-records-71957662.html
  13. 'Ford Motor Company Sets New Full Year U.S. Sales Record'. Theautochannel.com. Retrieved April 28, 2009.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  14. 'Ford's F-Series Truck Caps 22nd Year in a Row as America's Best-Selling Vehicle With a December Sales Record'. Theautochannel.com. November 17, 2004. Retrieved April 28, 2009.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  15. 'Ford Achieves First Car Sales Increase Since 1999'. Theautochannel.com. November 17, 2004. Retrieved April 28, 2009.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  16. 'Ford Motor Company Delivers Best Sales Year Since 2006; Ford Is Top Brand with Records for Fiesta, Fusion, Escape' (Press release). USA: Ford. January 3, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>
  17. 'Ford Posts Best U.S. December Sales Results since 2005; Ford Once Again Best-Selling Brand and Best-Selling Vehicle' (Press release). USA: Ford. January 5, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2015.<templatestyles src='Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css'></templatestyles>

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to [[commons:Category:{{#property:P373}} Ford E-Series]].
  • Ford E-Series official websites: U.S.A. Canada
  • Ford E-Series Ambulance Packages official websites (U.S.A.): Van Cutaway Chassis
  • Vintage Truck Magazine 1962 Ford Econoline Van detailed article
  • Mark's Econoline Page (Mainly about the 1961–1967 Econoline Pickups)
  • camperize.com—info about converting the E-series into a campervan
  • ThorMotorCoach.com—Major converter of E-Series chassis into motorhomes
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It's no secret that cars with manual transmissions are usually more fun to drive than their automatic-equipped counterparts. If you have even a passing interest in the act of driving, then chances are you also appreciate a fine-shifting manual gearbox. But how does a manual trans actually work? With our primer on automatics (or slushboxes, as detractors call them) available for your perusal, we thought it would be a good idea to provide a companion overview on manual trannies, too.

A brief history lesson shows that manual transmissions preceded automatics by several decades. In fact, up until General Motors offered an automatic in 1938, all cars were of the shift-it-yourself variety. While it's logical for many types of today's vehicles to be equipped with an automatic -- such as a full-size sedan, SUV or pickup -- the fact remains that nothing is more of a thrill to drive than a tautly suspended sport sedan, sport coupe or two-seater equipped with a precise-shifting five- or six-speed gearbox. It's what makes cars such as a Corvette, Mustang, Miata or any BMW sedan or coupe some of the most fun-to-drive cars available today.

We know which types of cars have manual trannies. Now let's take a look at how they work. From the most basic four-speed manual in a car from the '60s to the most high-tech six-speed in a car of today, the principles of a manual gearbox are the same. The driver must shift from gear to gear. Normally, a manual transmission bolts to a clutch housing (or bell housing) that, in turn, bolts to the back of the engine. If the vehicle has front-wheel drive, the transmission still attaches to the engine in a similar fashion but is usually referred to as a transaxle. This is because the transmission, differential and drive axles are one complete unit. In a front-wheel-drive car, the transmission also serves as part of the front axle for the front wheels. In the remaining text, a transmission and transaxle will both be referred to using the term transmission.

The function of any transmission is transferring engine power to the driveshaft and rear wheels (or axle halfshafts and front wheels in a front-wheel-drive vehicle). Gears inside the transmission change the vehicle's drive-wheel speed and torque in relation to engine speed and torque. Lower (numerically higher) gear ratios serve as torque multipliers and help the engine to develop enough power to accelerate from a standstill.

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Initially, power and torque from the engine comes into the front of the transmission and rotates the main drive gear (or input shaft), which meshes with the cluster or counter shaft gear -- a series of gears forged into one piece that resembles a cluster of gears. The cluster-gear assembly rotates any time the clutch is engaged to a running engine, whether or not the transmission is in gear or in neutral.

There are two basic types of manual transmissions. The sliding-gear type and the constant-mesh design. With the basic -- and now obsolete -- sliding-gear type, nothing is turning inside the transmission case except the main drive gear and cluster gear when the trans is in neutral. In order to mesh the gears and apply engine power to move the vehicle, the driver presses the clutch pedal and moves the shifter handle, which in turn moves the shift linkage and forks to slide a gear along the mainshaft, which is mounted directly above the cluster. Once the gears are meshed, the clutch pedal is released and the engine's power is sent to the drive wheels. There can be several gears on the mainshaft of different diameters and tooth counts, and the transmission shift linkage is designed so the driver has to unmesh one gear before being able to mesh another. With these older transmissions, gear clash is a problem because the gears are all rotating at different speeds.

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All modern transmissions are of the constant-mesh type, which still uses a similar gear arrangement as the sliding-gear type. However, all the mainshaft gears are in constant mesh with the cluster gears. This is possible because the gears on the mainshaft are not splined to the shaft, but are free to rotate on it. With a constant-mesh gearbox, the main drive gear, cluster gear and all the mainshaft gears are always turning, even when the transmission is in neutral.

Alongside each gear on the mainshaft is a dog clutch, with a hub that's positively splined to the shaft and an outer ring that can slide over against each gear. Both the mainshaft gear and the ring of the dog clutch have a row of teeth. Moving the shift linkage moves the dog clutch against the adjacent mainshaft gear, causing the teeth to interlock and solidly lock the gear to the mainshaft.

To prevent gears from grinding or clashing during engagement, a constant-mesh, fully 'synchronized' manual transmission is equipped with synchronizers. A synchronizer typically consists of an inner-splined hub, an outer sleeve, shifter plates, lock rings (or springs) and blocking rings. The hub is splined onto the mainshaft between a pair of main drive gears. Held in place by the lock rings, the shifter plates position the sleeve over the hub while also holding the floating blocking rings in proper alignment.

A synchro's inner hub and sleeve are made of steel, but the blocking ring -- the part of the synchro that rubs on the gear to change its speed -- is usually made of a softer material, such as brass. The blocking ring has teeth that match the teeth on the dog clutch. Most synchros perform double duty -- they push the synchro in one direction and lock one gear to the mainshaft. Push the synchro the other way and it disengages from the first gear, passes through a neutral position, and engages a gear on the other side.

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That's the basics on the inner workings of a manual transmission. As for advances, they have been extensive over the years, mainly in the area of additional gears. Back in the '60s, four-speeds were common in American and European performance cars. Most of these transmissions had 1:1 final-drive ratios with no overdrives. Today, overdriven five-speeds are standard on practically all passenger cars available with a manual gearbox.

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Overdrive is an arrangement of gearing that provides more revolutions of the driven shaft (the driveshaft going to the wheels) than the driving shaft (crankshaft of the engine). For example, a transmission with a fourth-gear ratio of 1:1 and a fifth-gear ratio of 0.70:1 will reduce engine rpm by 30 percent, while the vehicle maintains the same road speed. Thus, fuel efficiency will improve and engine wear will be notably reduced. Today, six-speed transmissions are becoming more and more common. One of the first cars sold in America with a six-speed was the '89 Corvette. Designed by Chevrolet and Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen (ZF) and built by ZF in Germany, this tough-as-nails six-speed was available in the Corvette up to the conclusion of the '96 model year. Today, the Corvette uses a Tremec T56 six-speed mounted at the back of the car.

Many cars are available today with six-speeds, including the Mazda Miata, Porsche Boxster S and 911, Dodge Viper, Mercedes-Benz SLK350, Honda S2000, BMW 3-Series and many others. Some of these gearboxes provide radical 50-percent (0.50:1) sixth-gear overdrives such as in the Viper and Corvette, while others provide tightly spaced gear ratios like in the S2000 and Miata for spirited backroad performance driving. While the bigger cars mentioned above such as the Viper and Vette often have two overdrive ratios (fifth and sixth) the smaller cars like the Celica and S2000 usually have one overdriven gear ratio (sixth) and fifth is 1:1.

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Clearly a slick-shifting manual transmission is one of the main components in a fun-to-drive car, along with a powerful engine, confidence-inspiring suspension and competent brakes. For more information on a manual transmission's primary partner component, check out our basic primer on clutches and clutch operation.