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International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 2, Issue 4, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473
The Effect of Nitrogen Application Rates and Timings of First Irrigation on Wheat Growth and Yield Muhammad Yousaf
Muhammad Shaaban
Suliman A.Ibrahim Ali
Soil & Environmental Sciences, Gomal University DI Khan, 29050, KPK, Pakistan College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, P.R. China Email: [email protected]
College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, P.R. China
College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China Agricultural Research Corporation ,Wad Medani , Sudan
Shah Fahad
M. Jamil Khan
Yin Wang
College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China
Soil & Environmental Sciences, Gomal University. DI Khan, 29050, KPK, Pakistan
College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, P.R. China
Adnan Noor Shah
Salih. A. I. Sabiel
Khalid. A. Osman
Soil & Environmental Sciences, Gomal University. DI Khan, 29050, KPK, Pakistan
College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan
College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China Agricultural Research Corporation, Wad Medani, Sudan
Abstract – The release of wheat cultivars with different nutritional demands and yield potential hinders generalized recommendations for nitrogen (N) fertilization and quality of irrigation. A combination of careful irrigation and nitrogen organization is needed to improve the uptake efficiency and to minimize potential N leaching. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the different nitrogen fertilization levels and irrigation timing on the agronomic performance of wheat, at the farm of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan during 2009-2010. A randomized complete block in split plot arrangements with four replications were used. The different nitrogen doses applied to the soil were 0, 80, 100, 120 and 150 kg ha-1 while, irrigation timings were at 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after germination. Nitrogen applied at 120 and 150 kg N ha-1 while kept the irrigation timing of 25 days after germination achieved the highest plant height, more tillers number, maximum number of fertile tillers and highest yield respectively, as compared to control and other treatments. These results suggest that the irrigation timing of 25 days after germination and 120 kg N ha-1 is suitable for maximum growth and wheat yield. Moreover, the higher performance of yield components was associated with higher nitrogen fertilization levels. Keyword – Nitrogen, Irrigation, Wheat, Yield and Doses.
I. INTRODUCTION Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the first most important cereal crop in the world and a major source of staple food for the inhabitants in Pakistan [1] and [2]. It provides more protein than any other cereal crop [3]. Despite of being grown on larger area, average yield of farmers’ fields is still far below than the potential [4]. The inadequate management of nitrogen fertilization, its non-use, soil type, water, climate and crop management are limiting factors of wheat yield. Among these, water use and fertilizer application are the most limiting factor in determining the yield of wheat crop in Pakistan [5].
Irrigation plays an important role in wheat plant development at any critical stage from seed germination to plant maturation. Earlier studies have shown that moisture stress to wheat crop at spike emergence and antithesis stages reduced yield from 3.3 to 7 tons per hectare [6]. Irrigation applied at a sensitive stage, would be a valuable management practice for improving yield [7, 8]. In Pakistan, wheat is usually irrigated 4 to 5 times after sowing up to its maturity. First irrigation is given at 15-20 days after sowing at crown root initiation (CRI) stage. The subsequent irrigations are provided with an interval of 3035 days. The water requirements of wheat vary from 180 to 420 mm [9]. Thus, there is sufficient scope to find out the minimum amount of water to be applied for maximum yield per millimeter of water applied. Water stress and nitrogen deficiencies reduce photosynthates production because of stomatal closure and early senescence which ultimately affect grain development processes [10]. The effect of water and nitrogen on physiological responses in wheat indicates that supplemental water is needed for high rates of spring applied N to increase the rate and duration of leaf photosynthesis in winter wheat during grain filling period [11]. Nitrogen plays a vital role in all living tissues of the plant. All vital processes in the plant are associated with protein, of which nitrogen is an essential constituent. Nitrogen is a constituent of proteins, enzymes, coenzymes, nucleic acids, phytochromes and chlorophyll. It plays an important role in the biochemical processes of the plant. Therefore, it is one of the most required nutrients by wheat crops [12]. Consequently to get more crop production, nitrogen application is essential in the form of chemical fertilizer [13]. Yield and yield components of high yielding varieties generally increase with increasing levels of nitrogen [14]. Application of proper amount of nitrogen is considered key to obtain a bumper crop of wheat. [15] reported that the spilt N application had little effect on yield, but decreased lodging and spike population, while grain weight increased. Nitrogen application at 120 kg/ha
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International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 2, Issue 4, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473 for wheat has been recommended by various researchers [16] and [17]. [18] reported that spike numbers and grain weight were increased with high level of nitrogen. recorded increased grain yield with an increase in nitrogen level [19]. Nitrogen deficiency affects biomass production and solar radiation use efficiency of the plant, with a great impact on grain yield and its components [20]. The variability in soil and climatic conditions associated with processes that affect nitrogen dynamics in the soil and their relationship with the plant may lead to changes in nitrogen availability and its requirement of the plant [21] and [22]. In addition, the release of new cultivars with different nutritional demands hinders generalized recommendations of nitrogen fertilization of wheat crops [23] .The interest in maximizing wheat yields has encouraged growers to adopt intensive management practices. It should be noted that both an optimized nitrogen management for a less responsive cultivar and a restrictive management for a more demanding cultivar may result in crops with less yield potential. High nutrient levels can also harm crops by making wheat plants more vulnerable to lodging, causing both damages to the environment through leaching [24]and nitrate volatilization [25] and economic losses to farmers, because only 33% of all nitrogen fertilizers applied to cereal crops are absorbed in harvested grain [26]. Thus, the use of nitrogen in wheat crops must be optimized to increase yields.Based on the above information, we performed a short term study with aims to (1) find out the minimum dose of nitrogen fertilizer for maximum wheat yield, (2) determine the minimum required quantity of irrigation water for the maximum wheat yield, (3) find out the most accurate time of irrigation and the most suitable intervals between two irrigations, and (4) to compare different doses, methods and timings of N fertilizer application with that of water.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental site description and treatments The experiment was carried out at the farm area of the Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan, during 2009-2010. The site is situated at longitude 71.07°E; latitude 31.57°N and 500 m above sea level. It was revealed the maximum temperature (37º C) in April and the minimum (5º C) in December and January/2010 Table I. The soil of the experimental site was classified as Silty clay loam according to the USDA classification. Soil texture, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, available potassium, ECe and pH of soil samples were measured before the start of the experiment. Soil samples were analyzed according to the methods described by the U.S. Salinity Lab. Staff, Agriculture Handbook (Richards 1954), unless otherwise described. Soil pH was determined using a combined electrode and pH meter in a 1:2.5 (soil: distilled water) mixture [27]. The main characteristics of the experimental site are given in Table II. Five doses of nitrogen (N) and four irrigation (I) timings were studied. Nitrogen was
applied at the rate of 0 (control, N1), 80 (N2), 100 (N3), 120 (N4) and 150 (N5) kg/ha. These irrigations were applied at 15 (I1), 20 (I2), 25 (I3) and 30 (I4) days after germination. The experiment was laid out in a split plot arrangement with four replications. Application of N and Irrigation formed a factorial experiment with four replicates for each treatment [(N: 5 × I: 4 × replication 4) = 80 treatments]. The net plot size was 2m × 4m for each treatment.
Plant cultivation, measurement parameters and wheat yield
of
agronomic
Wheat (variety Bhakkar-2002) was sown on 20 November 2009 at a seed rate of 100 kg/ha. The basal dose of phosphorus 60 kg/ha was applied to each plot, whereas N was applied according to the treatments of current experiment. All other agronomic practices were kept uniform for all treatments. At full maturity of wheat crop, agronomic parameters including plant height (cm), the number of fertile and infertile tillers/m2, number of spikelet per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight (g), grain yield (t/ha), biological yield (t/ha), straw yield (t/ha), harvest index (%) and economic analysis were measured using standard procedures. Randomly three plants were selected to measure different parameters from each plot. For biological yield, crop was harvested and tied into bundles separately from each treatment. Biological yield was recorded by weighing the bundles of each plot with a spring balance. The bundles were first sun-dried for 4 days and then threshed by a thresher. The grain weight was recorded for each treatment. After threshing, straw yield per plot was determined. The harvest index for each plot was calculated as follows: HI (harvest index) = grain yield/biological yield×100. The cost benefit ratio was calculated as follows: Cost benefit = total income – total cost for each treatment.
Statistical analysis The data analyzed statistically using MSTATC computer software, according to Fisher’s Analysis of Variance Technique and significant means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) Test at 5 % probability level.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Plant height
Plant height was significantly affected by different nitrogen levels and irrigation timings Table III. Maximum plant height (96.60 cm) was recorded from N5 (150 kg N /ha) and N4 (irrigated 30 days after germination) treatments as compared with other treatments. While, minimum plant height (46.10 cm) was observed in N1 treatments, where no nitrogen was applied. The results of nitrogen doses of 120 kg/ha were applied and irrigated 20 days after germination were statistically at par with those treatments where 150 kg nitrogen was applied and irrigated 30 days after germination. These results are in accord with those of [28], [29], [30]. They also observed an increase in plant height after nitrogen fertilization. Our result further supported by [31] that nitrogen levels of 140 kg ha -1 significantly augmented germination Copyright © 2014 IJAIR, All right reserved 646
International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 2, Issue 4, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473 percentage and seed size by weight. Effect of irrigation was also significant on plant height. In those treatments where irrigation is applied after 15 days of germination statistically produced higher plant height (79.54 cm) as compared to those treatments where irrigation was applied 30 days after germination (77.0 cm). [32] also found that irrigation frequencies had a significant effect on plant height. [33] detected that irrigation has a positive effect on plant height. It may be attributed to the irrigation effect on the encouragement of cell elongation, cell division and consequently, increased meristematic growth.
Number of fertile and infertile tillers Numbers of tillers were significantly affected by nitrogen levels and irrigation application. All the treatments receiving nitrogen produced a significantly more total number of tillers m-2 after those treatments where no nitrogen was applied. The maximum number of fertile tillers (402/m2) was produced in those treatments where nitrogen was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha and irrigated 20 and 25 days after germination and minimum number of fertile tillers (92/m2) was observed in those treatments where no nitrogen was applied and irrigated 30 days after germination. The number of fertile tillers in those plots where nitrogen was applied at the rate of 120 kg/ha and irrigated 25 days after germination were statistically at par with those treatments where nitrogen was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha and irrigated 15, 20, and 25 days after germination, which were significantly higher than those where irrigation was applied 30 days after germination Fig I. [34], [35], [36] reported that the number of spikes increased as irrigation increased. [37] also observed that irrigation at critical growth stages and the application of 150 kg N /ha gave the highest number of productive tillers . These results are quite in line with those of [29], [31], [41], [42] observed that productive tillers m-2, 1000-grain weight and grain yield of wheat enhanced with the application of 150 kg N ha-1. Various levels of nitrogen and irrigation timings significantly affected the number of infertile tillers. The maximum number of infertile tillers (12/m2) was found where no nitrogen was applied while the minimum infertile tiller (2m2) in those treatments where nitrogen was applied at the rate of 120 and 150 kg N/ha. The treatments in which nitrogen was applied at the rate of 120 and 150 kg N/ha but irrigated 30 days after germination produced significantly more infertile tillers (3/m2) as compared to those which were irrigated 15, 20 and 25 days after germination. Irrigation timings also significantly affected the infertile tillers. The treatments which were irrigated 30 days after germination produced significantly more infertile tillers m-2 as compared to those which were irrigated earlier. There was no difference between those treatments in which nitrogen was applied at the rate of 120 and 150 kg/ha and irrigated at 15, 20 and 25 days after germination. Fertilizer nitrogen is found to affect the number of tillers m -2 , number of spikelet’s Spike-1 , number of Grains spike -1 , spike length and 1000-grain weight [13]. The increase in the number of tillers with an increase in nitrogen levels could be attributed to the wellaccepted role of nitrogen in accelerating the vegetative
growth of plants. [34] also observed the significant effect of varying irrigation levels on the number of tillers. [28], [39], [43] also stated that increasing nitrogen application increased the number of tiller m-2.
Number of spikelets per spike Almost all the treatments produced a significantly more number of spikelets per spike as compared to control Table IV. Means Comparison in the case of nitrogen levels indicates that the spikelets per spike increase significantly with increasing of nitrogen. Maximum numbers of spikelets per spike (18) were produced from those treatments in which nitrogen was applied at the rate of 150 kg/ha and irrigated 25 days after germination, but these were statistically at par with those treatments in which nitrogen was applied at the rate of 120 kg/ha and irrigated 20 and 25 days after germination. Minimum numbers of spikelets per spike (9) were produced from those treatments in which no nitrogen was applied. The irrigation timings also significantly affected the number of spikelets per spike. Those treatments in which irrigation was applied 15 days after germination produced more number of spikelets per spike as compared to those which were irrigated after 20, 25 and 30 days of germination. [31] showed that the spikelets per spike increase significantly with increasing levels of nitrogen. Several investigators documented a beneficial effect of nitrogen application on wheat [44], [45], [46]. They reported that the number of spikelets increased with increasing N level.
Number of grains per spike and grain yield (t/ha) Number of grains per spike was significantly affected by various nitrogen levels and irrigation timings Table V. The treatments receiving N produced a significantly more number of grains per spike as compared to those in which no nitrogen was applied. Maximum number of grains per spike (47) were recorded in those treatments were 120 and 150 kg N/ha was applied and irrigated 25 days after germination that were statistically greater than those where 80 and 100 kg N/ha were applied. Minimum number of grains per spikes (23) were obtained from those plots where no nitrogen was applied and irrigated 30 days after germination of first irrigation. These findings are in agreement of findings of earlier studies [28], [29], [31], [35], [37], [41]. Grain yield was significantly affected by nitrogen levels and irrigation timings Table VI. Maximum grain yield (3.10 t ha-1) was produced in those treatments where nitrogen levels were 120 and 150 kg/ha and the crop was irrigated after 20 and 25 days of germination. Minimum grain yield (1.69 t ha-1) was found in those plots where nitrogen levels were zero. Higher grain yield was determined in the case where nitrogen levels were 120 and 150 kg/ha and crop was irrigated after 20 and 25 days of germination which might be due to supply of nitrogen starting from the early vegetative growth to flowering that synchronized the crop need for nitrogen and produced the highest number of fertile tillers per unit area and higher filled grains spike. From the result of current study, it is clear that grain yield increased significantly with the increase of irrigation and nitrogen levels. These findings are in line with ealier studies [8],[35],[37],[38],[47],[48].
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International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 2, Issue 4, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473
1000-grain weight 1000-grain weight was significantly affected by various nitrogen levels and irrigation timings. All the treatments produced significantly higher 1000-grain weight over those treatments where no nitrogen was applied. The maximum 1000-grain weight (43.80 g) was recorded in those treatments where nitrogen doses were applied at 120 and 150 kg/ha and irrigation timings were 25 days after germination. Minimum 1000-grain weight (39.80 g) was observed in those treatments where nitrogen was not applied. These findings are in conformity with those of previous studies [29], [38], [41], [47], [49]. Those treatments in which irrigation was applied at 15, 20 and 25 days after germination produced more 1000-grain weight as compared to those treatments which were irrigated 30 days after germination in Table VII. The results were similar to the findings of previous reports [47], [50].
Biological yield and straw yield (t ha-1) Biological yield (total biomass produced by a crop from the unit area) was significantly affected by nitrogen levels and irrigation timings Table VIII. Maximum biological yield (8.99 t ha-1) was observed in those plots where the nitrogen level was kept 150 kg/ha and the crop was irrigated 25 days after germination. Minimum biological yield (6.13 t ha-1) was recorded in those plots where nitrogen levels were zero. Our results confirmed the results [51] who obtained maximum biological yield in plots treated with 285 kg nitrogen per hectare. In 2011, [52] conducted an experiment in which he observed that biological yields were increasingly affected by the available water and N fertilizer. The finding indicated that the biological yield response to N was associated with water application levels.
Economic analysis showed that by spending Rupee (Rs.) 2900 ha-1 irrigated after 25 days + nitrogen 150 Kg ha-1 was the best economical treatment with the highest net benefit of Rs.83241. Other treatment combinations such as irrigated after 20 days + nitrogen 150 Kg ha-1 gave the net benefit of Rs. 83072 and irrigated after 25 days + nitrogen 120 Kg ha-1 gave the net benefit of Rs. 81493. Another treatment i.e. Irrigated after 25 days + nitrogen 0 Kg ha-1 gave the net benefit of Rs. 52068.
IV. CONCLUSION Nitrogen fertilization management and irrigation (rate and timing) offers the opportunity for increasing the wheat production. In the present investigation, wheat variety Bhakkar-2002 achieved a higher number of tillers, plant height, 1000-grain weight and maximum grain yield in 120 kg ha-1 nitrogen level and first irrigation interval of 25 days after germination. So it is possible to get maximum growth and wheat yield just in 120 kg N ha-1 and irrigation timing of 25 days after germination. However, excess applications of N are not economically efficient and can create environmental problems.
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Straw yield (t ha-1) Straw yield was significantly affected by nitrogen levels and irrigation timings. Maximum straw yield (5.88 t ha-1) was observed in those plots where the nitrogen level was 150 kg/ha and crop was irrigated 25 days after germination. Minimum straw yield (4.36 t ha-1) was recorded in those plots where the nitrogen level was 80 kg/ha Table IX. There was no statistically difference between those treatments in which 120 kg nitrogen per hectare was applied and those in which 150 kg N/ha was applied. The results are in accordance with the findings of earlier studies [35], [38], [ 47].
Harvest index Data pertaining to harvest index as affected by various nitrogen levels and irrigation timings presented in Table I0. The data showed that harvest index was significantly affected by nitrogen levels and irrigation timings. Maximum harvest index (39.16 %) was recorded in those treatments where nitrogen levels was 120 kg/ha and the crop was irrigated 25 days after germination and the minimum harvest index (28.17%) was observed in those treatments where no nitrogen was applied. Statistically there was no difference between those treatments in which 150 kg N/ha was applied. The results of [50] collaborate with the results obtained regarding irrigation and regarding nitrogen the findings are in conformity with those of [29].
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and Technology. 12 (03) : 75-83. [33] M. A .Hailed, and A. M. El Melegy (2005). Effect of irrigation requirements, seeding rates and bio-mineral fertilizer on wheat prod-uctivity in newly reclaimed soil under sprinkler irrigation system. J. Productivity and Development. 10 :113-134. T. Matsunaka, H. Takeuchi and T. Miyawaki (1992). Optimum irrigation period for grain production in spring wheat. Soil Sc.op and Pl. Nutr. 38(2): 269-279 (Field Crop Absts., 47(8): 4740; 1992). H.M. Ghazal, M.Z. Wassouf, M.M. Nachit and A.A.Jaradat (1998). Yield and yield components of durum wheat as influenced by irrigation and nitrogen fertilization. Proc. 3rd Int. Triticeae Symp, Aleppo, Syria, 4-8 May: 445-449 (CAB. Absts., 1998). I.I. Zbiec, Z. Koszanski and C. Podsiadio (1998). Reakcja trzech odmian Pszenicy Jarej na deszezowanie I nawozenie mineralne na glebie lekkiej, 438: 345-350 (Field Crop Absts., 1998). M. Maqsood, A. Ali, Z. Aslam, M. Saeed and S. Ahmad (2002). Effect of irrigation and nitrogen levels on grain yield and quality of wheat. Int. J. Agri. Bio. 4(1): 164-165. A.A.Abd-El-Gaward, N.A. Noureldin, M.A. Ashoub and M.A. Kashabah (1993). Studies on consumptive use and irrigation scheduling in relation to nitrogen fertilization on wheat. II- response of wheat yield and its attributes. Ann. Agric. Sci. (Cairo). 38(1): 173-181 (CAB. Absts., 1993). [39] A.U. Chaudhry, and R. Mehmood (1998). Determination of optimum level of fertilizer nitrogern for two varietes of wheat. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 1(4):351-353. A.M. Ezzat, H. Kazemi, M.R. Shakiba and M. Valizadeh (1999). Effect of different rates and dates of nitrogen fertilizer application on yield and yield components of spring wheat in Tabriz. Iranian J. Agri. Sci. 29(4):787-800 (Field Crop Absts., 52(11): 7926; 1999). S.R.S. Sabry, E.M. Taha, and A.A. Khattab (1999). Response of long spike wheat (Triticum aestivum L) genotypes to nitrogen fertilizer levels in soils of Middle Egypt. Bull. Fac. Agri. Univ. Cairo, 50(2): 169-188 (CAB Absts., 1999). L.Q. Ali, Mohy-Ud-Din and M. Ali ( 2003). Effect ofdifferent doses of nitrogen fertilizer on the yield of wheat. Int. J. Agric. Biol. 5: 438–9. E. Hameed,W.A. Shah, A.A. Shad, J. Bakht and T.Muhammad (2003). Effect of different planting dates, seed rate and nitrogen levels on wheat. Asian J. Plant Sci. 2(6): 467-474. M. E. Mosalem, M. Zahran, M. M. EL-Menofi and A. M. Moussa (1997). Effect of sowing date, seeding rate and nitrogen level on wheat production: 2- Yield and yield components. First Ann. Conf. Sept. 1-3, NRC, Giza, Egypt. F. A. Sorour, M.E. Mosalem and A.E. Khaffagy (1998). Effect of preceding crop, seeding rates and nitrogen levels on wheat growth and yield and its components. J. Agric. Res., Tanta Univ. 24 (3): 263 281. Sobh, M.M., M.S. Sharshar and Soad A. El-Said (2000). Response of wheat to nitrogen and potassium application in a salt affected soil. J. Product & Dev. 5(1): 83-98. Yang, J., J. Zhang, Z Wang, Q. Zhu and L. Liu (2001).Water deficit induced senescence and its relationship to the remobilization of pre-stored carbon in wheat during grain filling. Agron. J. 9391: 196-206. Gill, M.S., Kulwinderjit-Singh and K. Singh (1999). Effect of irrigation regimes and rates of nitrogen on yield and quality of durum wheat. Res. (Punjab Agri University, Ludhiana, India) 36(3-4): 180-186 (CAB. Absts., 1999). Buriro, U.A., M.R. Arain, A.M. Kumbhar and G. Jamro (1990). Effect of different irrigation frequencies on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars. Sarhad J. Agri. 6(3): 209-211. Rajput, M.K.K., A.H. Ansari, S.A. Rao, K.A. Mahar and Z.M. Shaikh (1994). Influence of nitrogen irrigation frequencies on the growth and grain yield of bread wheat varieties. Pak. J. Agric. Engg. Vet. Sci. 10(1-2): 64-69. Khan MA, Hussain I, Baloch MS (2000). Wheat yield potential current status and future strategies. Pak J. Bio. Sci. 3:82–86. Aliasghar Montazar and Maliheh Mohseni (2011). Influence of Supplemental Irrigation and Applied Nitrogen on Wheat Water Productivity and Yields. Journal of Agricultural Science. 3 (1).,78-90.
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International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 2, Issue 4, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473
AUTHOR’S PROFILE Muhammad Yousaf was born 1st Sept 1985 in District Rajanpur (Punjab) in Pakistan. Done B.Sc.(Hons) Agriculture Soil Science from University of Agriculture Faisalabad in 2006 and M.Sc.(Hons) Agriculture Soil Science from Gomal University D.I.Khan in 2010 with first division and good grades in all educational career. Recently doing PhD on CSC Scholarship in Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China. Main expertise are to deal with soil and plant fertilization, NPK management, Fertilizers, Rotation of different crops, Production technology of Wheat, Rice, Rapeseed and Analysis of Macro nutrients in soil and plants. Previous publications: Establishment Method Affects Oilseed Rape Yield and the Response to Nitrogen Fertilizer in Agronomy Journal (2014). Yin Wang, Bo Liu, Tao Ren,* Xiaokun Li, Rihuan Cong, Meng Zhang, Muhammad Yousaf, and Jianwei Lu
Suliman Abdalla Ibrahim Ali was born in January 1978 in Village 1 Elgadaref State, Sudan. Under graduate from 1999 – 2003 B.Sc., Agriculture Sciences (Plant protection) with first class from Faculty of Agriculture of Sciences University of Gezira, Sudan. Subject Plant protection. Post Graduate from 2005 – 2007 M.Sc., Plant protection, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Sudan. From 9/12/12 till now I am doing PhD scholarship in insect molecular biology at Huazhong agricultural university in china. Work Experience: Research Scientist in Agricultural Research Corporation in Entomology Research Section in Wad Medani, Sudan from 07/04/2004 to till date Previous publications: 1/ Mohammed E. E. Mahmoud*1, Suliman A. Ibrahim1, Hassbelrasul A. Mohamed 2 Recommendation of Cruiser 350 FS (Thiamethoxam) against the green bug Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) and termite on Wheat in 80th meeting of the national pests and diseases committee , June 2009 in Agricultural Research Corporation ,Wad Medani , Sudan. 2/ Hassbelrasul A. Mohamed 1 and Suliman A. Ibrahim Ali1 Evaluation of a new formulation of Gaucho 600 FS (Imidacloprid) and Raxil 120 FS (Tebuconazole) as mixture for control of aphids, termites and damping off on wheat in 81st meeting of the national pests and diseases committee , December 2009 in Agricultural Research Corporation ,Wad Medani , Sudan. 3/ Suliman Abdalla Ali1*. Detection and Monitoring of Some Tephritidae of Fruit Trees and their Host range in Abugubeiha, South Kordofan State, Sudan. Arab Journal of Plant Protection Volume 27, Special Issue October,26/2009. 4/Mohammed E. E. Mahmoud*1 , Suliman A. Ibrahim 1 , Hassbelrasul A. Mohamed 2and Francis Leju Oji 1 Prospects of Using Cruiser®350 FS (thiamethoxam) to Control Greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) on Wheat. Persian Gulf Crop Protection Volume 1 Issue 4, December 2012 Pages 1-4. 5/Suliman A. Ibrahim Ali*1, Mohammed E. E. Mahmoud1WangManQun2and Diakite Mory Mandiana2. Survey and Monitoring of Some Tephritidae of Fruit Trees and heir Host Range in River Nile State, Sudan. Persian Gulf Crop Protection Volume 2 Issue 3, September 2013Pages 32-39. 6/ Mohaned, M. A. Mohamed1, Mohamed, H. Zein Elabdeen2and Suliman Abdalla I. Ali3* Host Preference of the Melon Worm, Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on Cucurbits in Gezira State, Sudan. Persian Gulf Crop Protection Volume 2 Issue 3, September 2013 Pages 55-63. 7/Abdalla. M. Abdalla Salim1, El- I mam Elkhidir2and Suliman Abdalla.I.Ali3* Incidence of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) on Two Cotton Varieties, Pubescent and Glabrous Grown under Field Conditions in Sudan. Persian Gulf Crop Protection Volume 2 Issue 3, September 2013 Pages 47-54. 8/Akaram.S.S.Muhammed *1, H.UR.R. MEMON2, S.K. Baloch3, Khalid Abdalla Osman4 and Suliman A. Ibrahim Ali4 Effect of Bioorganic and Inorganic Fertilizers on The Growth And Yield Of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Persian Gulf Crop Protection Available online on: www.cropprotection.ir ISSN: 2251-9343 (Online) Volume 2 Issue 4,
December 2013 Pages 15-24. 9/ Nagm Eldeen .D. A. Dafalla1, M.S. A.EL-Sarrag1, Khalid Abdalla Osman2 and Suliman Abdalla.I.Ali2 * Determination of Flavonoids in Sudanese Honey Samples and Plant Sources Collected from Different Places in Sudan . International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 2, Issue 4, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473.
Khalid abdalla osman was born in 14TH JAN. 1975 in Gezera – Sudan. Under graduate from 1995 - 2001 B.sc. Agriculture Sciences Crop science University of Zalengi. Post Graduate from 2004 - 2007 M.sc. Agric. Science from Sudan Academy of Sciences. From 2010 – 2014 Ph.D. Agric. Science Crop Gen. & breeding from Huazhong Agricultural University. Work Experience: Research Scientist in Agricultural Research Corporation in plant breeding in Wad Medani, Sudan from 07/04/2004 to till date Previous publications: 1. Osman, K. A., A. M. Mustafa and A. S. Ibrahim., 2006.(Genetic Variability And Interrelationships Of Grain Yield And Its Components Of Irrigated Rice In Gezira. gezera journal. of Agric. Sci.5(2) :154-166. 2007. 2. Khalid A. Osman, Bin Tang, Yaping Wang, Juanhua Chen, Feng Yu, Liu Li, Xuesong Han, Zuxin Zhang, Jianbin Yan, Yonglian Zheng, Bing Yue, Fazhan Qiu . 2013. Dynamic QTL Analysis and Candidate Gene Mapping for Waterlogging Tolerance at Maize Seedling Stage. PLoS ONE 8(11): e79305. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079305. 3. Khalid A. Osman, Ahmed M. Mustafa, Farhan Ali, Zhengyonglian And Qiu Fazhan. 2012. Genetic variability for yield and related attributes of upland rice genotypes in semi arid zone (Sudan). African journal of agricultural research, vol.6 (29), http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR 4. Khalid A. Mohamed, Atif Elsadig Idris,Hassan Ibrahim Mohammed and Khalid Abdalla Osman. 2012. Ranking Rice (oryza sativa L.) genotypes Using multi,criteria Decision Making Correlation and Path coefficient analisis. British Biotechnology Journal 2012, 228-211:(4)2 SCIENCDOMAIN international www.sciencedomain.org.
Salih Adam Ibrahim Sabiel was born first July 1972 in El Fasher, Darfur State, Sudan. B.Sc. Honor in crop sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zalingei, 1998, Sudan. M.Sc. in Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, 2005, Sudan. Ph.D. Candidate, Plant Genetics and Breeding, Huazhong Agricultural University Wuhan, China. Work Experience: Research Scientist in plant breeding at Agricultural Research Corporation, Sudan from February 2000 till now, Assistant Professor of Plant Breeding Previous publications: 1. Awadalla Abdalla Abdelmula and Salih Adam Ibrahim Sabiel (2007). Genotypic and Differential Responses of Growth and Yield of some Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress. Tropentag, Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, University of Kassel-Witzenhausen and University of Göttingen, October 9-11, 2007, Germany. 2. Elfadil Bashir, Bettina Haussmann, Abdelbagi Ali, Adam Ali, Mohamed Ismail, Elgailani Abdalla, Omer Bakhit, Salih Sabeel, Peter Muth, Heiko Parzies (2011). Genetic Analysis and Biofortification of Pearl Millet for Nutritional Values. Conference of Development on the margin, Tropentag 2011, October 5 - 7, Bonn, Germany. 3. Elfadil Bashir, Adam Ali, Mohamad Ismail, Elgailani Abdalla, Omar Bakhit, Salih Sabeel, Abdelbagi Ali, Bettina I.G. Haussmann (2012). Characterisation of Sudanese Pearl Millet Germplasm as Source in Breeding for Adaptation to Climate Change. Conference on Resilience of agricultural systems against crises, Tropentag, September 19-21, 2012, G¨ ottingen -Kassel/Witzenhausen, Germany.
Copyright © 2014 IJAIR, All right reserved 650
International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 2, Issue 4, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473 Table I: Average monthly and seasonal meteorological data during 2009-2010 Temperature (C0) Relative Humidity Month
Rainfall
Max 33
Min 16
Hrs. 82
Hrs 57
(Mm) 13
November
25
10
80
55
--
December
22
5
81
63
--
January
16
5
88
76
9.2
February
22
8
76
58
1.1
March
30
15
63
63
22
April
37
19
74
45
--
October
Table II: Physico-Chemical properties of experimental site Units (dS/m) (%) (%) (mg/kg) (mg/kg) (meq/L)
Items pH ECe OM Total N Avail. P Avail. K -
Cl +2
+2
Ca + Mg Textural Class
Value 8.5 3.50 0.60 0.030 7.50 102 2.60
(meq/L)
2.80
-
Silty clay
Table III: Plant height (cm) as influenced by different nitrogen levels and timings of first irrigation Nitrogen Levels Irrigation Timings Irrigation 15 DAG Irrigation 20 DAG Irrigation 25 DAG Irrigation 30 DAG Mean
N1 Control 48.70 h 48.40 hi 46.60 hi 46.10 i 47.45 e
N2 80 kg/ha 73.70 f 72.55 f 73.15 f 66.05 g 71.36 d
N3 100 kg/ha 85.75 e 85.10 e 85.70 e 85.15 e 85.42 c
N4 120 kg/ha 92.10 cd 94.75 ab 90.45 d 94.40 abc 92.92 b
N5 150 kg/ha 94.50 ab 93.55 bc 96.05a 96.60 a 95.17 a
Mean 79.54 a 78.92 ab 78.41 b 77.0 c
Means sharing the same letter in a column do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 LSD0.05 for Nitrogen = 1.18 , LSD0.05 for Irrigation = 1.06 Table IV: Number of spikelets per spike as influenced by different nitrogen levels and timings of first irrigation Nitrogen Levels Irrigation Timings Mean N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 Control 80 kg/ha 100 kg/ha 120 kg/ha 150 kg/ha Irrigation 15 DAG 11 f 13.50 e 15.50 d 17.50 ab 17.00 bc 14.60 b Irrigation 20 DAG 10.00 g 13.50 e 15.00 d 17.50 ab 16.50 c 14.10 c Irrigation 25 DAG 9.00 h 13.50 e 15.50 d 18.00 a 18.00 a 14.90 b Irrigation 30 DAG 9.00 h 13.50 e 17.00 bc 16.50 c 18.00 a 15.40 a 9.75 d 13.50 c 15.75 d 17.37 a 17.37 a Mean Means sharing the same letter in a column do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 LSD0.05 for Nitrogen = 0.37 LSD0.05 for Irrigation = 0.33
Copyright © 2014 IJAIR, All right reserved 651
International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 2, Issue 4, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473 Table V: Number of grains per spike as influenced by different nitrogen levels and timings of first irrigation Nitrogen Levels Irrigation Timings Mean N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 Control 80 kg/ha 100 kg/ha 120 kg/ha 150 kg/ha Irrigation 15 DAG 30.00 e 33.00 d 39.00 b 46.00 a 46.50 a 37.50 b Irrigation 20 DAG 25.50 f 34.50 cd 40.50 b 46.00 a 44.50 a 37.80 b Irrigation 25 DAG 23.50 f 34.50 cd 40.00 b 47.00 a 46.00 a 38.40 b Irrigation 30 DAG 23.00 f 36.00 c 40.50 b 46.00 a 46.00 a 39.90a 25.50 d 34.50c 40.00 b 46.25 a 45.75 a Mean Means sharing the same letter in a column do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 LSD0.05 for Nitrogen = 1.38 LSD0.05 for Irrigation = 1.24 Table VI: Grain yield (t ha-1) as influenced by different nitrogen levels and timings of first irrigation Irrigation Timings Irrigation 15 DAG Irrigation 20 DAG Irrigation 25 DAG Irrigation 30 DAG Mean
N1 Control 1.75 i 1.69 k 1.73 j 1.73 j 1.72 d
N2 80 kg/ha 2.16 g 2.14 h 2.19 f 2.14 h 2.16 c
Nitrogen Levels N3 100 kg/ha 2.34 e 2.35 de 2.36 d 2.34de 2.35 b
N4 120 kg/ha 3.07 c 3.10 a 3.10 a 3.09 ab 3.08 a
N5 150 kg/ha 3.06 c 3.10 a 3.10 a 3.08 bc 3.09 a
Mean 2.47 bc 2.47 bc 2.49 a 2.48 ab
Means sharing the same letter in a column do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 LSD0.05 for Nitrogen = 2.0 LSD0.05 for Irrigation = 2.0 Table VII: 1000-grain weight (g) as influenced by different nitrogen levels and timings of first irrigation Nitrogen Levels Irrigation Timings Mean N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 Control 80 kg/ha 100 kg/ha 120 kg/ha 150 kg/ha Irrigation 15 DAG 40.20 i 41.30 h 42.50 de 42.90 bcd 43.20 b 41.71 c Irrigation 20 DAG 39.88 i 41.90 g 41.90 g 43.20 b 43.20 b 41.82 c Irrigation 25 DAG 39.80 i 42.35ef 42.90 bcd 43.80 a 43.80 a 42.07 b Irrigation 30 DAG 38.90 j 41.95 fg 40.95 h 42.71 cde 42.95 bc 42.31 a 39.68 d 41.87 c 42.06 c 42.97 b 43.28 a Mean Means sharing the same letter in a column do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 LSD0.05 for Nitrogen = 0.21 LSD0.05 for Irrigation = 0.19 Table VIII: Biological yield (t ha-1) as influenced by different nitrogen levels and timings of first irrigation Irrigation Timings Irrigation 15 DAG Irrigation 20 DAG Irrigation 25 DAG Irrigation 30 DAG Mean
N1 Control 6.33 h 6.13 h 6.29 h 6.53 gh 6.32 d
N2 80 kg/ha 6.91 efgh 6.81 fgh 6.56 gh 7.39 defg 2.92 c
Nitrogen Levels N3 N4 100 kg/ha 120 kg/ha 7.80 cdef 8.20 abcd 8.01 abcd 7.89 bcde 8.16 abcd 8.33 abcd 8.01 abcd 8.69 abc 8.00 d 8.28 b
Means sharing the same letter in a column do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 LSD0.05 for Nitrogen = 0.52 LSD0.05 for Irrigation = 0.46
Copyright © 2014 IJAIR, All right reserved 652
N5 150 kg/ha 8.98 a 8.94 a 8.99 a 8.89 ab 8.95 a
Mean 7.64 a 7.56 a 7.67 a 7.91 a
International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research Volume 2, Issue 4, ISSN (Online) 2319-1473 Table IX: Straw yield (t ha-1) as influenced by different nitrogen levels and timings of first irrigation Nitrogen Levels Irrigation Timings N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 Control 80 kg/ha 100 kg/ha 120 kg/ha 150 kg/ha Irrigation 15 DAG 4.58 efg 4.75 cdefg 5.46 abcdef 5.12 abcdefg 5.92 a Irrigation 20 DAG 4.44 fg 4.66 defg 5.66 abcd 4.80 bcdefg 5.85 a Irrigation 25 DAG 4.56 efg 4.36 g 5.80 ab 5.26 abcdefg 5.88 a Irrigation 30 DAG 4.80 bcdefg 5.25 abcdefg 5.67 abcd 5.59 abcde 5.79 abc 4.60 d 4.76 cd 5.65 ab 5.19 bc 5.86 a Mean
Mean 5.17 a 5.08 a 5.17 a 5.42 a
Means sharing the same letter in a column do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 LSD0.05 for Nitrogen = 0.52 LSD0.05 for Irrigation = 0.46 Table X: Harvest Index as influenced by different nitrogen levels and timings of first irrigation. Irrigation Timings Irrigation 15 DAG Irrigation 20 DAG Irrigation 25 DAG Irrigation 30 DAG Mean
N1 Control 28.93 efg 28.17 g 28.71 efg 28.40 fg 28.55 d
N2 80 kg/ha 32.24 cdef 32.44 cde 34.75 bc 29.32 efg 32.19 c
Nitrogen Levels N3 N4 100 kg/ha 120 kg/ha 30.64 defg 37.57 ab 29.53 efg 36.97 ab 28.99 efg 39.16 a 29.38 efg 35.97 abc 29.63 d 37.42 a
N5 150 kg/ha 34.27 bcd 34.48 bcd 34.52 bcd 34.89 bc 34.54 b
Mean 32.73 a 32.75 a 32.79 a 31.60 a
Means sharing the same letter in a column do not differ significantly at p = 0.05 LSD0.05 for Nitrogen = 1.96 LSD0.05 for Irrigation = 1.75
Fig.1 . Number of fertile and infertile tillers (m-2) as influenced by different nitrogen levels and timings of first irrigation
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This book presents the combined proceedings of the 12th KIPS International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Technologies and Applications (CUTE 2017) and the 9th International Conference on Computer Science and its Applications (CSA2017), both held in Taichung, Taiwan, December 18 - 20, 2017. The aim of these two meetings was to promote discussion and interaction among academics, researchers and professionals in the field of ubiquitous computing technologies. These proceedings reflect the state of the art in the development of computational methods, involving theory, algorithms, numerical simulation, error and uncertainty analysis and novel applications of new processing techniques in engineering, science, and other disciplines related to ubiquitous computing. James J. (Jong Hyuk) Park received Ph.D. degrees in Graduate School of Information Security from Korea University, Korea and Graduate School of Human Sciences from Waseda University, Japan. From December, 2002 to July, 2007, Dr. Park had been a research scientist of R&D Institute, Hanwha S&C Co., Ltd., Korea. From September, 2007 to August, 2009, He had been a professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Kyungnam University, Korea. He is now a professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering and Department of Interdisciplinary Bio IT Materials, Seoul National University of Science and Technology (SeoulTech), Korea. Dr. Park has published about 200 research papers in international journals and conferences. He has been serving as chair, program committee, or organizing committee chair for many international conferences and workshops. He is a steering chair of international conferences – MUE, FutureTech, CSA, CUTE, UCAWSN, World IT Congress-Jeju. He is editor-in-chief of Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences (HCIS) by Springer, The Journal of Information Processing Systems (JIPS) by KIPS, and Journal of Convergence (JoC) by KIPS CSWRG. He is Associate Editor / Editor of 14 international journals including JoS, JNCA, SCN, CJ, and so on. In addition, he has been serving as a Guest Editor for international journals by some publishers: Springer, Elsevier, John Wiley, Oxford Univ. press, Emerald, Inderscience, MDPI. He got the best paper awards from ISA-08 and ITCS-11 conferences and the outstanding leadership awards from IEEE HPCC-09, ICA3PP-10, IEE ISPA-11, PDCAT-11, IEEE AINA-15. Furthermore, he got the outstanding research awards from the SeoulTech, 2014. His research interests include IoT, Human-centric Ubiquitous Computing, Information Security, Digital Forensics, Vehicular Cloud Computing, Multimedia Computing, etc. He is a member of the IEEE, IEEE Computer Society, KIPS, and KMMS. Vincenzo Loia (BS ‘85, MS ‘87, PhD ‘89) is Full Professor of Computer Science. His research interests include Intelligent Agents, Ambient intelligence, Computational Intelligence. Currently he is Founder & Editor-in-chief of “Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing”, and Co-Editor-in-Chief of “Softcomputing”, Springer-Verlag. He is Chair of the Task Forces “Intelligent Agents” and “Ambient Intelligence” IEEE CIS ETTC. He has been Chair the Emergent Technical Committe 'Emergent Technology', IEEE CIS Society and Vice-Chair of Intelligent Systems Applications Technical Committee. He has been author of more than 200 scientific works, Editor/co-editor of 4 Books, 64 journal papers, 25 book chapters, and 100 conference papers. He is Senior member of the IEEE, Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, and Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems. Many times reviewers for national and international projects, Dr. Loia is active in the research domain of agents, ambient intelligence, computational intelligence, smartgrids, distributed platform for enrich added value. Gangman Yi in Computer Sciences at Texas A&M University, USA in 2007, and doctorate in Computer Sciences at Texas A&M University, USA in 2011. In May 2011, he joined System S/W group in Samsung Electronics, Suwon, Korea. He joined the Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Korea, since March 2012. Dr. Yi has been researched in an interdisciplinary field of researches. His research focuses especially on the development of computational methods to improve understanding of biological systems and its big data. Dr. Yi actively serves as a managing editor and reviewer for international journals, and chair of international conferences and workshops. Yunsick Sung received his B.S. degree in division of electrical and computer engineering from Pusan National University, Busan, Korea, in 2004, his M.S. degree in computer engineering from Dongguk University, Seoul, Korea, in 2006, and his Ph.D. degree in game engineering from Dongguk University, Seoul, Korea, in 2012. He was employed as a member of the researcher at Samsung Electronics between 2006 and 2009. He was the plural professor at Shinheung College in 2009 and at Dongguk University in 2010. His main research interests are many topics in brain-computer Interface, programming by demonstration, ubiquitous computing and reinforcement learning. His Journal Service Experiences is Associate Editor at Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences, Springer (2015- Current).

Handbook Of Ambient Intelligence And Smart Environments

Author :Hideyuki Nakashima
ISBN :9780387938080
Genre :Computers
File Size : 33.77 MB
Format :PDF, Mobi
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Our homes anticipate when we want to wake up. Our computers predict what music we want to buy. Our cars adapt to the way we drive. In today’s world, even washing machines, rice cookers and toys have the capability of autonomous decision-making. As we grow accustomed to computing power embedded in our surroundings, it becomes clear that these ‘smart environments’, with a number of devices controlled by a coordinating system capable of ‘ambient intelligence’, will play an ever larger role in our lives. This handbook provides readers with comprehensive, up-to-date coverage in what is a key technological field. . Systematically dealing with each aspect of ambient intelligence and smart environments, the text covers everything, from visual information capture and human/computer interaction to multi-agent systems, network use of sensor data, and building more rationality into artificial systems. The book also details a wide range of applications, examines case studies of recent major projects from around the world, and analyzes both the likely impact of the technology on our lives, and its ethical implications. With a wide variety of separate disciplines all conducting research relevant to this field, this handbook encourages collaboration between disparate researchers by setting out the fundamental concepts from each area that are relevant to ambient intelligence and smart environments, providing a fertile soil in which ground-breaking new work candevelop.

Advances In Computer Science And Its Applications

An Introduction To Solar Radiation Iqbal Masih 2017

Author :Hwa Young Jeong
ISBN :9783642416743
Genre :Mathematics
File Size : 90.57 MB
Format :PDF, ePub
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An Introduction To Solar Radiation Iqbal Masih



An Introduction To Solar Radiation

These proceedings focus on various aspects of computer science and its applications, thus providing an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in this and related areas. The book includes theory and applications alike.

An Introduction To Solar Radiation Iqbal


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